Research Paper: Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia )

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[. . .] In Oct 1990, the SPM, the SNM, and the internal USC were signatories of an agreement to not proceed without discussing with one another to create a new political headship and to not negotiate with the Siad Barre regime. As the only one who was actually involved in the fight in opposition to the regime General Mohammed Farah Aydeed, the internal branch was under his control. The collapse of the dictatorship and the disorder that followed lead Ali Mahdi Mohammed being proclaimed by his close acquaintances as the president, even though he was one of the Manifesto participants as the leader of the external USC. Married to the public health adviser of the former president and owner of one of the best hotels in Mogadishu, Ali Mahdi was a rather unfamiliar figure. Several veterans such as Ahmed Jilow, formerly the head of Secret Police and Mohamed Sheikh Osman, the Finance Minister for quite a long-term, belonging to the former regime surrounded Ali Mahdi. Almost soon after the collapse of the Siad Barre regime on January 29th 1991, civil war started amongst the winners because the SPM, General Aydeed and the SNM didn't accept Ali Mahdi's so-called election. This lasted 18 months and ultimately led to foreign forces intervening[footnoteRef:13]. [13: Ibid]

It is maybe of use at this point to analyse the division of the country, by the range of band organizations of a political nature, amongst themselves[footnoteRef:14]. These should neither be viewed as traditional tribal structures (given that it was only in 1990 that most of them had surfaced) nor as political organisations that are modern. Popular organisations are what they tried to pass themselves off as, whereas in reality they were 'bastardized' entities, established on clan enrolment (even though distant from including all members of the clan). They attempted to the trade the limited capacity they had in their residential areas in exchange of a way in to attaining foreign aid; and they all had the support of customized armed militias. Some were predominantly defensive (especially in the South, among the inactive peoples of the inter-riverine area), but the majority were offensive and signified a sort of revolutionary side of their people as well as a fascination for the disaffected anomic youthful fighters called mooryaan (the cast out ones), who aroused fear evenly in both friends and enemies[footnoteRef:15]. [14: Jobson, B. (2008). Islamists thrive as Somali leader quits. Reuters, The Financial Times.] [15: Ibid]

Renewed Civil War (1991-1992)

Victims and oppressors

Due to the uncertain circumstances, the SNM was enforced by the major pressure in the past British colony to quickly announce the independence in the month of May 1991[footnoteRef:16]. Though the circumstances varied greatly in the North and South regions, but due to the announcement of independence, the uncertain conditions got settled to some extent into the indigent quasi-government. On the other hand, beneath the SSDF leadership, the northeast area remains out of the brawl that excludes the fights with the Aydeed's branch of USC, which was Belet Weyn. Moreover, this situation did not remain for the longer time as this spreads out to the borders of Kenya, which was completely under violence[footnoteRef:17]. [16: Chothia, F. (2011). Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al-Shabab? News Africa, BBC African Service] [17: Chothia, F. (2011). Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al-Shabab? News Africa, BBC African Service]

It is identified that the circumstances got worse with the passage time in Mogadishu when the conquering Hawiye killed non-Hawiye occupants in the region. The non-Hawiye occupants included public figures like the Issaq, who could be termed as the adamant supporters of the past regime. The people who were mostly victimized were those who belonged to different clans of the Darod family which includes Majerteen, Ogadeen, Dolbahante, Marehan and etc. This spell of brutal killing got into prominence from the activities of the offending young soldiers of Hawiye who were at that time known and popular as the mooryan[footnoteRef:18]. [18: Ochami, D. (2011). Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission. The Standard, Standard Group.]

The cruel slaughter of innocent people widely spread that one of the liberators Colonel Omar Jess being an Ogadeen Darod was unable to stand and overlook the extensive killings of his people and he decided to take an action against his so called dear former friends or alliances. Colonel Omar was badly beaten in the Afgoye and he had to move back to the South due to the strong pressure imposed by Hawiye[footnoteRef:19]. [19: Ibid]

The atrocious circumstances of the country at the time insisted Colonel Omar in April 1991 to join back the forces with the enemies of SNF in opposition to USC allies. They made the strategy of attacking the north region. The fights in the north and the south region destroyed inter- reverine areas which affected and destroyed the crops and forced several people to turn into expatriates. Once the situation got stabilized between the regions of Gedo and Bay, which was previously in control of the forces of SNF-Siad Barrre and which came under the alliance of Aydeed- SDM-USC, Colonel Omar took advantage of the situation and reconciled with General Aydeed so that he could get his support against the forces of General Morgan. This reconciliation between Omar and Aydeed allowed the Colonel to return to the harbor of the Kisimayo in South[footnoteRef:20]. [20: Ibid]

In the South where the situations got more stabilized, the tension and the strain flared up again in the south capital, as a consequence, among those opponent or rival branches of USC who were about to bury all their differences so that they can together face the threats given by SNF enemies. To fight with SNF enemies, a conference was arranged in 15-21 July, 1991 in Djibouti so that the political situation, as termed by Somaliland President Abd-er-Rahman Ali Tur, was a surrealistic construction that can in no way be put into the practice. The total of 83 government men selected in the conference to make up the intervening government was positioned under the command of President Ali Mahdi Mohamed but this governement, again, existed only in the paper form and not in real[footnoteRef:21]. [21: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2012). Joint Communique - Operation Linda Nchi. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, accessed March 3rd, 2012 from: http://www.mfa.go.ke/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=399:joint-communique&catid=35:news]

The defeat of Siad Barre had taken place when the military operations in the Gulf war were gone unnoticed by the global actors. Afterwards in the year of 1991, the brawl had again started between the provinces of Lower Shebelle, Bay and the Lower Jubba. Again it did not gain any attention from the world as in these provinces there was not even a single foreigner or journalist. In the same year of 1991 in the month of November, a Mogadishu War, which was fought till the early subsequent year of 1992, finally highlighted the Somali conflicts and got the attention of the whole world[footnoteRef:22]. [22: China Daily. (2010). Kenya agrees to join AMISOM. Accessed March 3rd, 2012 from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2011-12/07/content_14225808.htm]

The major reason behind the Mogadishu war was the competition for controlling the capital between the two under-fed and the over-armed opponent groups of the related tribes. The thing that finally exploded the two rival groups was a very minor contention on controlling the airport. This war lasted for the 3 months under the drastic conditions of savagery. Both the rival camps for the three months routinely used the heavy weapons in the streets without considering about the safety and security of the civilians of the capital. During the three months there were around 14000 casualties because of the blind attacks made on the prisoners, ambulances and etc. In contrast, the attack on the Siad Barre forces just a year prior to Mogadishu war had only 4000 casualties[footnoteRef:23]. Thus, at the end it is noticed that there was not a single benefit of fighting for either party and finally the war ended dividing the capital between southern zone, which was controlled by General Aydeed, and the northern zone that was controlled by the Ali Mahdi. [23: Physicians for Human Rights. (1992). No Mercy in Mogadishu. London: Physicians for Human Rights.]

The last fight between the two capitals drastically weakened the branch of USC which includes different segments of Hawiye tribe; and the SNF forces of pro- Siad Barre took the hearts of people in South zone. The former regime after getting the heavy weapons from South Africa via Kenya[footnoteRef:24], under the guidance of General Mohamed Said Hersi, the 'Morgan', initiated an enormous attack on the north zone in the year 1992 in March. In April 1992 the Morgan and his army made it to the capital and forced the two generals, Aydeed and Ali Mahdi, to reconcile on temporary basis so that they can together face the threat of the new emerging force of 'Morgan'. The forces of pro-Siad barre were defeated badly in the attack… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia ).  (2012, March 3).  Retrieved July 18, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/humanitarian-intervention-somalia-1990/9760171

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"Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia )."  Essaytown.com.  March 3, 2012.  Accessed July 18, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/humanitarian-intervention-somalia-1990/9760171.