Term Paper: Humulus Lupulus Hops (Humulus Lupulus)

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[. . .] Fuggle has a vital oil substance of just about 1.0 ml/gram of dry matter (1%), an alpha acid substance of 4 to 6% and a prominent aroma.

Fuggle is not trained up the strings the initial season and does not generate its initial full crop until the third season. Fuggle is an early maturing type of Humulus Lupulus with a low yield possibility (1,100 to 1,400 lb/acre). For the reason that Fuggle is not biologically high yielding, cultivators usually grow male hop plants with Fuggle to pollinate the female plants, resulting in bigger cones (Murakami, 2000).

In 1976, the Oregon Agricultural Experimentation Station produced Willamette. This variety generates seedless hop in the company of male flowers. Pollinated cones are bigger than unpollinated cones, however, the seed substance is short in this triploid cultivar. The light green cones are easy to observe opposed to the dark green foliage. Willamette grows-up after its parent, Fuggle, and is pulled out in late August or early September in Oregon. This variety has an oil substance of 1%, alpha acid substance of 6 to 7% and a pleasing aroma. Willamette is opposed to downy mildew, however, vulnerable to the potato breed of Verticillium dahliae. Willamette generates up to 2,000 lb/acre of dried hop (Murakami, 2000).

Developed in 1972, Cascade, matures subsequent to Fuggle. It is opposed to downy mildew, however, extremely vulnerable to Verticillium wilt and to Prunus necrotic ring-spot virus (PNRSV). Willamette has oil substance of 1 to 2%, alpha acid substance of 5 to 7% and a distinctive smell. The orange-yellow lupulin of this type is abundant, and the cone textures buttery when touched. Cascade generates up to 2,000 lb/acre.

In 1976, the USDA and the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station released Columbia. This almost sterile triploid cultivar is extremely appropriate to a mechanical yield. Oil, alpha acid and aroma are parallel to its parent Fuggle (Murakami, 2000).

Columbia is average to late growing with a harvest probability of 1,900 lb/acre (Murakami, 2000).

Tettnanger and Hallertauer are continental aroma cultivars from Germany. These cultivars are quite lenient to crown disease by downy mildew, while vulnerable to mite infestations. For the reason that harvest probability is merely 50 to 70% that of cultivars released in the United States, cultivation is founded on brewery demand. These varieties are cultivated biologically in Wisconsin and generate up to 800 lb/acre (Murakami, 2000).

The American varieties comprise Early Cluster, as well as Late Cluster, which are the most extensively cultivated hop varieties in the United States. Both these varieties are dynamic, excess yielding, and well modified to automatic harvesting. The Clusters have comparable brewing character, with 5 to 7% alpha acid at development (Yamazaki, 2000).

Early Cluster develops just about 10 to 14 days earlier than Late Cluster. Early Cluster is opposed to Verticillium wilt, however, to some extent vulnerable to downy mildew through crown and root contamination (Yamazaki, 2000).

Late Cluster generates up to 2,000 lb/acre. Downy mildew can turn out to be a predicament late in the season, and the numerous strains of Late Cluster are in addition somewhat more vulnerable to diseases than Early Cluster (Yamazaki, 2000).

In 1965, the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station developed and released Talisman. It is the utmost yielding variety in Idaho, with a yield probability of up to 3,200 lb/acre. It develops a week after the Late Cluster. Talisman has an oil substance of 1.5% and alpha acid substance of 8 to 10%. Even though Talisman is opposed to the crown rot phase of downy mildew, it is susceptible to the cone phase of the infection. Phytophthora root rot is a predicament in waterlogged soils (Yamazaki, 2000).

The Extract or High-Alpha varieties comprise Brewer's Gold and Bullion and the novel high-alpha types (Beatson and Inglis, 1999).

Brewer's Gold and Bullion were first grown in England and instituted initially into the United States in the 1930s. They are average to late growing, with Bullion growing 10 days previous to Brewer's Gold. Both are dynamic and well modified to mechanical yielding, with a harvest probability of 2,500 lb/acre when grown seeded. They are less vulnerable to downy mildew than the Cluster varieties. Brewer's Gold and Bullion are high in elemental oils and have an alpha acid substance of 8% (Beatson and Inglis, 1999).

In 1978, the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station developed and released Galena, resulting from Brewer's Gold. Galena is usually strung and yielded after Early Cluster (delayed training puts off the start of maturity and improves yield.) Galena is fairly opposed to the crown phase of downy mildew. It in addition demonstrates resistance to Verticillium wilt, even though if cultivated in potato land, a number of the young plants might demonstrate symptoms of the infection. Galena is vulnerable to frost damage and might be tough to set up. Alpha acid levels average 12% (up to 300 lb/acre of alpha acids).

Eroica is a late maturing sibling of Galena developed and released in 1980. In the Willamette Valley, Eroica is ready to be yielded in mid- September. Alpha acid scales are 10 to 13%, with the probability of cultivating more than 300 lb/acre of alpha acids. Eroica is not as stable in storeroom as Galena or the Clusters. This variety has a fairly high mark of resistance to hop downy mildew, as well as the potato breed of Verticillium dahliae (Beatson and Inglis, 1999).

Nugget, developed and released by the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA in 1983, grows after Galena, however, ahead of Eroica. Alpha acid substance is parallel to Galena and cone weight harvest is parallel to Eroica. Nugget has approximately 2% fundamental oils and seems to have high-quality storage characters. Nugget has excellent resistance to hop downy mildew, however, seems to be vulnerable to Verticillium wilt (Beatson and Inglis, 1999).

Olympic is a high alpha acid hop developed and released in 1983 by the Washington Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA. Olympic tends to generate an extreme quantity of male flowers, plummeting cone cluster mass and harvest. Olympic is effortlessly trained and frost tolerant, however, it does need careful pest control supervision. It has no defiance to the two-spotted mite or the hop-damson aphid. Olympic has average resistance to downy mildew, however, shows some vulnerability to Verticillium (Beatson and Inglis, 1999).

The Washington Agricultural Experiment Station developed and released chinook in 1985. It is measured medium-early in maturity, even though in Oregon it seems to be late in maturity. Chinook has 11 to 13% alpha acid substance and 0.5% oil substance. This variety has average resistance to downy mildew, as well as to the two-spotted spider mite and the hop-damson aphid. It seems to be liberated of PNRSV and apple mosaic disease (Beatson and Inglis, 1999).

Harvesting:

Hop harvest in the Northwest typically proceeds from mid-August to mid-September. In northern Wisconsin the aroma varieties Hallertauer and Tettnanger are developed in late August. Hop is in best state for picking for no more than 5 to 10 days. Premature yield consequences in loss to the farmer from dry-down (weight loss throughout drying). After the harvest has attained complete maturity, shattering loss intensifies and cones quickly become stained. For the reason that harvesting can be a lengthy procedure, rising varieties of conflicting maturities allows for a longer season of yield (David, 1998).

Hop cones can be pulled out by hand or mechanically. Majority of the hop farmers who yield the crop mechanically employ stationary picking machines. The vines are separated from the hill and the trellis wires approximately 4 ft from the earth. The cut vines are tied into "combs" prepared on a flatbed truck and transferred to the picking machine, which strips the hop and majority of the leaves from the vines. The hop then passes through a forced air stream to eliminate debris (David, 1998).

Drying and Storage:

Damp substance of the hop cone ought to be shortened from 65 to 80% to 8 to 10% for storage. Incessant flow dryers drive 140 to 150°F air through sheets of hop on a moving belt. Majority of the hop are washed-out and conditioned by sulfur dioxide fumes blown through the hop throughout the drying procedure (1 to 4 oz of sulfur/100 lb of green hop). Subsequent to drying, the hop is transferred to a cooling room for a week to allow the temperature and damp substance of the cones to level out (even out). As the cones even out, they in addition, toughen up and obtain a better aroma and enhanced look. It might be essential to moisten the air in the cooling room. The cured hop is then baled or palletized. Cold storage and transfer at temperatures lower than 40°F is the best defense in opposition to worsening of hop (Saito and Hirosawa, 1995).

Yield Potential and Performance Results:

The harvest and functioning of hop in the Upper Midwest is reasonable with that of the Northwest. Besides the total… [END OF PREVIEW]

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