Hybrid on Line Instruction Essay

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Hybrid Online Instruction

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There is push of the higher education towards novel instruction delivery models by the advent of the internet. This leads to the student being the focus of the learning process and the new models results into the creation of instructions which are tailor made for the student delivery. Self paced learning approach has become popular because of the different learning styles of the student that have evolved. Therefore technology has been integrated in this self paced learning whereby interactive computer programs, interactive audio visual programs and audio visual cassettes. Again the focus on the skills development of the student as a competency rather than the focus on the knowledge obtained by the student is a debatable issue though recent industrial trends are tending towards the competency-based training. There has been a high degree of acceptance for the distance learning and in particular the training courses that are continuous. There has been increased use of learning platforms that are based online supporting face-to-face learning. The modern lifestyle is the notable driver to this trend whereby there isn't enough times to attend a face-to-face instruction system. Most of the work related assessment is being implemented using the internet as the preferred medium as well as the certification and licensing in most developed countries. This is because of the flexibility and low cost implication of using the internet. The tests delivered through the internet are the fastest growing sphere even though the larger market is held by the tests of paper and pencil. Though the tests delivered by the internet have several advantages, it raises several issues like the integrity and security of the test. This paper will consider the different testing approaches and in particular with the use of computer where the computer-based testing and the proctored computer-based testing will be analyzed. The paper will also consider the competency-based learning and the class assessment learning. There will be an analysis of the aspects of self paced and the structured instruction systems (Alexander, 2006, p. 2).

Competency-based Learning

Essay on Hybrid on Line Instruction Assignment

The capability of a person after training is the focus of this method of study. The conventional educational systems are teacher centered and time is its unit of progression. CBT is centered on the participant and the specific skill and knowledge mastery is the unit of progression. This method represents a shift from the emphasis of comparing the grade of a person relative to another one to the emphasis of standards of industry competency. Competency-based training has received substantial support for instance Sullivan, who is convinced that learning based on time is medieval and should be replaced by competency-based learning. It is also argued that the traditional model through school in training of individuals is inefficient (Sullivan, 1995).

Essential elements of CBT system

There are several elements that are essential of competency-based training. There is identification and verification of competencies which are to be achieved and these are made public. There is also the explicit stating of assessment criteria and conditions of the achievement assessment. The individual's attitude and knowledge is taken into account during assessment but the principal source of evidence is the actual display of the competency.

The focus on each participant success is the principal advantage of CBT. In situations whereby the person being trained is required to have attained limited number of competencies which are job related and specific. There are several benefits of CBT: The competencies necessary for the job performance will be achieved by them, as the participants succeed in the mastery of specific competencies, they develop their confidence, a list of the competencies which the participants have achieved will be availed to them, rather than using the more training time on lecture presentation it is used on working with the participants on individual basis, the ability of the participant to perform vital job skills will have more evaluation time and because the trainer is not the information provider but rather the learning facilitator there is efficiency in the utilization of training time.

Competency-based training also has some limitations. The first one is that there is high tendency of the trainers of CBT to take on the traditional teacher's role if they are not provided with training initially and subsequent follow up. The second one is that the effectiveness of the CBT course is dependent on the effectiveness of the process. The resulting course is not likely to be effective if adequate attention is not given to the essential job skill identification. The third one is that course is not likely to be entirely competency-based if the specific materials for CBT and training approaches are designed to be integrated in the CBT approach.

Computer-based testing

The assessment and testing applications has been affected by the computers in the way of their design and administration. Computer-based tests are assessment or tests where the computer is used for administration either in networked configurations or standalone. Most are conducted at specific predetermined testing center although it's possible to be done through the internet or other networked configurations however this raises the concerns over security issue. The CBT does not need any specialized skill as the mere use of keyboard and mouse familiarity is sufficient to undertake the exam. Depending on the type of test, sometimes the candidates are expected to know how to use an online calculator which can be the basic four function one. In most cases a tutorial is provided for the review of the test by the candidates before commencement. New possibilities are created for effective testing by CBT in comparison to the tests delivered in the classroom on paper (Bartram, 2007, p.3). There is also ease of learning the software used in computer-based testing and some have the advantage of providing the learning curve. There are various benefits of the CBT for the candidates in replacing the conventional pencil and paper testing systems. This includes the frequent administration of the tests than most pen and paper modes provide. This also provides the test scheduling convenience which depend on location, time and dates which the student chooses to best suit them (Kruse, 1995). The scoring and the results for the CBT system are faster. Most of the CBT centers are conducted in a well set professional environment which limits the disturbances hence improving the concentration during the exam time. CBT is also desirable form due to the consistent and reliable testing environment characterized by minimal variability from one candidate's experience to the other. There are also reduced errors in the candidate's response which can result from the answers being transferred to the answer sheet from the exam booklet.

Proctored computer-based testing

A proctored exam involves supervision of the students by an individual who administers the exam so as to ensure security and integrity of the exam and the environment itself is also secure. The proctored, computer-based testing is implemented in some institutions as a way of dealing with the need for high frequency of testing. This is because findings from over 70 years have found that the student success is increased by the increase of the exam frequency. For instance there have been reported improvement of 14% whenever the tests were given twice a month instead of monthly and the performance found to be higher by 10% in the cases that exams are administered every week instead of six weeks (Keys, 1934, 511-520).The proctored is thus a favorable remedy for this need for increased frequency because there will be limited time available for learning activities at the class meetings if the instructor decides to set more exams.

The proctored tests have been associated with better attitudes of the students than the pencil and paper testing in the class. Proctored testing however is face with the problem of cheating whereby the students didn't take the exam at the same time. They then disclose the information about the exam content and specifically the questions and answers to their friends who then have the undue advantage. Some students still don't believe that this is a kind of cheating because they consider the information they are sharing is the same as would have been provided by the professor in the classes. This type of cheating can also be reduced in the PCBT by ensuring the students take the exams all at the same time though this will be costly because it might require the size of the facilities to be increased. The faculty can also mitigate the effect of student communication with each other by refraining from giving feedback on the test results of the individual until the exam has been taken by all the students. The sharing of the answers with certainty will not be there because the students don't know the answer key. The other option will involve assigning different exams though similar to the different students and this can be even much easier for classes where computations are being tested because the numbers can be manipulated. This might also be a challenge to the faculty to develop… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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