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The Impact of Religiosity on Adolescent Alcohol Use"Literature Review" Chapter

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Adolescent Use of Alcohol

Alcohol use among adolescents is acknowledged as a significant family and societal problem (Yang, Zhiyong, & Schaninger, 2010). Professionals in multiple healthcare fields have warned that adolescent alcohol use can lead to (a) detrimental drinking patterns, (b) negative influences on families, and (d) significant costs to society (Yang et al., 2010). The costs of adolescent alcohol to society are truly enormous and have been estimated at $68 billion annually (National study reveals teen substance use America's no. 1 public health problem, 2011). These economic costs, of course, are in addition to the tragic toll that adolescent alcohol use can exact, a toll that can last a lifetime. In fact, adolescents who drink are more likely to drink excessively when they are adults, which can lead to significant mental and physical health problems; thus, it is important to understand how to reduce the prevalence of adolescent alcohol abuse (Yang et al., 2010).

Parenting styles have been identified as a dominant determinant of children's behavior, but this influence becomes less important as young people grow older (Altay & Gure, 2012). Researchers have determined an authoritative parenting style can mediate alcohol use frequency in teen children (Yang, Schaninger & Laroche, 2012). Abar and Turrisi (2008) found that even if parents provided alcohol education and support in late adolescence, better outcomes were realized. The positive outcomes included better peer friendships in college, which acted as a preventative measure for excess alcohol intake. The researchers found that parental monitoring led to college aged children picking friends who did not abuse alcohol; thus, parents served as good mediators in developing healthy coping strategies for becoming productive members of society (Abar & Turrisi, 2008).

An influencing factor in adolescent and young adult alcohol consumption is parenting style. Researchers have found that there is a relationship between parenting style and adolescents' attitudes, knowledge and behavior with respect to alcohol use (Ballantine, 2009). In some cases, an authoritative parenting style can be effective in shaping healthy attitudes about alcohol use in young people, while in others a different style is required. There are four main types of parenting styles commonly recognized today: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful (Ballantine, 2009) which are defined below.

Authoritative parenting style: These parents are demanding and responsive, controlling but not restrictive. This child-centered pattern includes high parental involvement, interest, and active participation in the child's life; open communication; trust and acceptance; encouragement of psychological autonomy; and awareness of where children are, with whom, and what they are doing.

Authoritarian parenting style: These parents are demanding, but not responsive. They show little trust toward their children, and their way of engagement is strictly adult-centered. These parents often fear losing control, and they discourage open communication.

Permissive parenting style: These parents are responsive, warm, accepting, and child-centered, but non-demanding. They lack parental control.

Neglectful parenting style: These parents are neither responsive nor demanding. They do not support or encourage their child's self-regulation, and they often fail to monitor or supervise the child's behavior. They are uninvolved (Ballantine, 2009, p. 46).

Not surprisingly, different outcomes for young people are the result of using different parenting styles, with some being more effective for some purposes than others. Researchers have also found that the type of parenting styles used has an effect on young people's social and psychological adjustments that can influence alcohol use and abuse (Ballantine, 2009). The research to date indicates that an authoritative parenting style without the use of physical punishment is the most effective for controlling adolescent alcohol use (Ballantine, 2009).

Other factors found to influence or govern alcohol consumption in adolescents and young adults include peer pressure which can be intensified due to cultural or religious factors (Jones, 2014). In some societies, young people are allowed to enjoy a glass of wine at dinner with the adult members of the family and nothing negative is associated with the practice. Likewise, the legal drinking age varies from country to country, and some countries such as Japan offer alcoholic beverages in vending machines which are accessible by all (Balko, 2010).

Similarly, in Judaism, wine is essential in most cultural and religious ceremonies; every Jewish kid gets acquainted to it at a young age, through older family members, during Sabbath. All Jews grow up following this tradition of getting blessed over wine, and having a sip, every week on Sabbath day. It has been shown that, while Jews are normally meant to consume sensible, moderate quantities of wine, particular occasions, like Passover celebrations, allow them to drink intoxicating quantities, as stated by Velleman. Judaism, however, advocates controlled alcohol consumption, and sacred scriptures warn against overindulgence. According to Velleman, Jews earlier exhibited very low drinking problems. Weiss (2001) as well as Velleman (2002), however, admit that drinking issues are increasing among them, and hint at various reasons responsible for this rise, one of which is transformation of traditional family strength.

These are important issues because alcohol use among adolescents and young adults in general is escalating, and is increasingly being acknowledged as significant family and social problems (Yang, Zhiyong, & Schaninger, 2010). Alcohol use frequency has been an increasing problem on college campuses in particular (Larimer & Conce, 2007). Serious potential health consequences, the start of detrimental drinking patterns, negative influences on families, and cost to society are concerns expressed by professionals in multiple healthcare fields (Audrain-McGovern et al., 2004; Yang et al., 2010). Today, there is a need for additional research into youth drinking patterns in order to develop the best possible preventative strategies and interventions. Research must be culturally specific as well as age appropriate. This proposed research study focuses on the possible relationship between parenting styles and drinking habits among Jewish youth, and offers suggestions for treatment and prevention strategies.

Background for Adolescent Use of Alcohol

Young adult and teen drinking are rising and acknowledged as a significant family and social challenge (Yang, Zhiyong, & Schaninger, 2010). Serious potential health consequences, the start of detrimental drinking patterns, negative influences on families and cost to society are concerns expressed by professionals in multiple healthcare fields (Audrain-McGovern et al., 2004; Yang et al., 2010).

Adolescents who drink may be more likely to drink excessively when they are adults, which could lead to mental and physical health problems increasing the importance of understanding how do reduce the prevalence of alcohol abuse (Yang et al., 2010). Parenting styles have been identified as a dominant factor in deciding the overall outlook of a child's behavior (Baumrind, 1991). In particular, with an authoritative style, parents can mediate alcohol use frequency in their teen children (Yang, Schaninger & Laroche, 2012). Even in late adolescence, parental involvement in accordance with alcohol use education and support, yielded young adults making better peer friendships in college, leading to preventative measures of excess alcohol intake (Abar & Turrisi, 2008). Similarly, successful parental monitoring allowed for their college aged children to pick friends that do not abuse alcohol; in these cases, parents served as good mentors in developing healthy coping strategies for becoming productive members of society (Abar & Turrisi, 2008).

Parenting styles have influenced the degree and frequency of alcohol use in college age students (Larimer & Conce, 2007, Yang et al., 2010). In particular, there has been a clear association between parental monitoring and reduced drinking among teens (Beck et al., 2004). For example, a study by Goncy and van Dulman (2010) notes that, "Empirical findings demonstrate that several parental factors are related to alcohol use, alcohol related problems and co-occurring risky behaviors" (p. 94). Parental support and higher involvements levels have been shown to reduce adolescent problem behavior including alcohol use (Goncy & van Dulman, 2010). It is also noteworthy that these findings hold true across ethnicities and gender and higher levels of parental support and involvement are consistently associated with less alcohol use by adolescents (Goncy & van Dulman, 2010).

One of the parenting styles that has positively influenced reduced alcohol use among adolescent college adults is the authoritative style (Patock-Peckham & Morgan-Lopez, 2006). Authoritative parents are described as being highly demanding but responsive, demonstrating noteworthy success in safeguarding their children from alcohol use frequency (Baumrind, 1991, 2005). Though children whose parents are authoritative were least unstable and most adept, those with parents having a fairly imbalanced demanding-responsive ratio, i.e., non-authoritarian-directive and democratic, were nearly equally well adjusted and adept. As compared to youth from democratic as well as authoritative backgrounds, those hailing from directive families- non-authoritarian and authoritarian- were slightly less academically adept and individuated; however, they had good social skills. Those whose parents are non-authoritarian-directive were more proficient and less troubled than those whose parents are authoritarian-directive.

Thus, children's levels of competency can be predicted by parenting styles; also, parenting styles can temper impacts of (perceived) parenting practices excluding abuse. Hence, variables that represent demandingness factor prove more beneficial when implanted in authoritative structures. Contrary to authoritarian structures, the authoritative structure combines firm supervision and control on behavior with support of child self-sufficiency and affection. Likewise, high… [END OF PREVIEW]

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