Thesis: Impact of Transformational Leadership on Subordinates Development and Performance

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¶ … Transforamtional Leadership on Subordiantes Development and Performance

This work intends to examine and discuss the impact of transformational leadership on the development and performance of subordinates.

Definition and Characteristics of Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership is described as a "process of transforming the organizational behavior, the culture and the individuals; simultaneously transforming the leader himself." (Leadership Development, 2009) Transformational leaders are stated to be those who "...constantly articulate new visions to motivate the organization, they exhibit high passion and confidence in their beliefs, they give importance to ethics and values while setting accountable standards in the organization." (Leadership Development, 2009)

It is also related that transformational leaders are further "...able to have an exceptional influence on their followers, compelling them to share the leader's vision and to take actions beyond their specified responsibilities." (Leadership Development, 2009) Characteristics of the transformational leader includes their exhibition of good organizational skills and their ability to align their own aspirations and motivations to that of the organization's vision. (Leadership Development, 2009, paraphrased)

Two primary characteristics of transformational leaders are their:

(1) Charismatic leadership; and (2) Stewardship and servant leadership. (Leadership Development, 2009)

II. Strengths of Transformational Leadership

The strengths of transformational leadership include the following strengths:

(1) Transformational leadership is most researched leadership model and there is substantial evidence of its effectiveness.

(2) Transformational leadership is most intuitive and easily recognized by people; it fits the popular notion of a leader. (Leadership Development, 2009)

III. Criticisms Stated in Regards to Transformational Leadership

The criticisms most often stated against Transformational Leadership are those as follows:

(1) Potential to be abused: Transformational leadership's high effectiveness in leader's vision makes it undemocratic; the leader's purpose is largely unchallenged, thus liable to be misused by the leader. There is plenty of historical evidence supporting its misuse, Adolf Hitler being one of the most prominent one.

(2) Too Complicated: Transformational leadership is an amalgamation of various leadership theories, making it unreasonable to be trained or taught. (Leadership Development, 2009)

IV. Subordinate's Personality Effect on Transformational Leadership

The work of Hautala (2005) entitled: "The Effects of Subordinates' Personality on Appraisals of Transformational Leadership" published in the Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies" states that a wide variety of systems for enhancing development of leaders have been applied in appraising those systems however, the most popular of all measure tools for the performance of leadership has been a focus on the leader's personality however, it is held by Hautala that subordinate's personalities additionally impact ratings given for their leaders' transformational behavior. Results in this study show "...indicated that extraverted and feeling subordinates give clearly higher ratings than their introverted and thinking counterparts." (Hautala, 2005)

V. Examination of Transformational Leadership and Subordinate's Personalities

The work of Avolio and Howell (1992) holds that leader's and subordinate's personalities are "important in the prediction of satisfaction and performance." (in: Hautala, 2005) If leadership skills are to be improved then subordinate feedback is critical and reported as "one of the most commonly used tools. (Atwater, Waldman, Atwater and Cartier, 2000; Ostroff, Atwater & Feinberg, 2004, Roush, 1992 in: Hautala, 2005) It is critical to note that study has shown that leaders are completely willing to modify their behavior "according to this feedback. (Atwater, Roush & Fischtal, 1995, Johnson & Ferstl, 1999, in: Hautala, 2005)

V. Relationship Between Subordinates and Transformational Leaders

Hautala (2005) reports that the relationship between transformational leaders and subordinates has been examined in the study of Dvir and Shamir (2003); Humpreys, Weyant, and Sprague (2003) and Wofford, Whittington and Goodwin (2001) and it is stated by Wofford et al. (2001) that findings show that "...individual motive patterns do serve as situational moderators for the effectiveness of transformational leadership. These studies have shown, for example, that highly committed subordinates rate their leaders as more transformational than less committed subordinate). Moreover, subordinates with a higher growth need strength, and higher autonomy needs rate transformational leaders as more effective than other subordinates." (Hautala, 2005)

Stated as even more recent is the work of Howell and Shamir who reveal the"...role of subordinates in the charismatic leadership process and theoretically discussed the relation of followers' self-concept and identity with the charismatic leaders. They argued that followers with low self-concept clarity and relational identity are more prone to the "blind faith and unquestioning obedience" to the leader than followers with high self-concept clarity and collective identity. Some studies have also focused on the connection between transformational leadership and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Roush, 1992; Roush & Atwater, 1992; Van Eron & Burke, 1992). However, very few of them have focused on the personality of subordinates (Roush, 1992) and thus more studies of this field are needed. In terms of the MBTI-studies, Roush's study (1992) indicated that sociable extraverts, tender-hearted feeling types, and adaptive perceiving subordinates gave more positive ratings of their leaders than did internal introverts, logical thinkers and orderly judgers." (Hautala, 2005)

VI. Impact of Leadership Style/Emotions on Subordinate Performance

The work of McColl-Kennedy and Anderson (2002) entitled: "Impact of Leadership Style and Emotions on Subordinate Performance" reports the Examination of "...whether the emotions of frustration and optimism mediate, fully or partially, the relationship between leadership style and subordinate performance in the context of structural equation modeling. The findings show that transformational leadership has a significant direct influence on frustration and optimism, with the negative influence of frustration having a stronger effect on performance than the positive influence of optimism. Frustration and optimism are found to have a direct influence on performance, and the emotions, frustration and optimism, fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and performance. Thus, the effect of transformational leadership style on performance is significant, but indirect." (McColl-Kennedy and Anderson, 2002)

The work of Krishnan (nd) entitled: 'Impact of Transformational Leadership on Followers' Influence Strategies" states that the effects of the "...-member exchange, transformational leadership, and perceived value system congruence between leader and follower on follower's six upward influence strategies-assertiveness, bargaining, coalition, friendliness, higher authority, and reasoning were studied using a sample of 281 managers working in various organizations in India." (Krishnan, nd)

Results stated in this study are those demonstrating that "...transformational leadership mediates the relationship between LMX and congruence. Both LMX and transformational leadership are related positively to friendliness and reasoning, and negatively to higher authority. Congruence is not related to influence strategies. Transformational leadership is the best predictor of friendliness, and neither LMX nor congruence explains significant additional variance in friendliness. Similarly, LMX is the best predictor of reasoning, and neither transformational leadership nor congruence explains significant additional variance in reasoning. Controlling for transformational leadership makes the relationship between LMX and higher authority non-significant and controlling for LMX makes the relationship between Effects of leader-member exchange, transformational leadership, and perceived value system congruence between leader and follower on follower's six upward influence strategies-assertiveness, bargaining, coalition, friendliness, higher authority, and reasoning were studied using a sample of 281 managers working in various organizations in India. Results show that transformational leadership mediates the relationship between LMX and congruence. Both LMX and transformational leadership are related positively to friendliness and reasoning, and negatively to higher authority. Congruence is not related to influence strategies. Transformational leadership is the best predictor of friendliness, and neither LMX nor congruence explains significant additional variance in friendliness. Similarly, LMX is the best predictor of reasoning, and neither transformational leadership nor congruence explains significant additional variance in reasoning. Controlling for transformational leadership makes the relationship between LMX and higher authority non-significant and controlling for LMX makes the relationship between transformational leadership and higher authority non-significant." (Krishnan, nd)

The work of Asgari and Silong (2008) entitled: "The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership Behaviors, Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors" states that it has been posited that elements of transformational and transactional leadership "...should be incorporated in the study for predicting subordinate citizenship… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Impact of Transformational Leadership on Subordinates Development and Performance.  (2009, December 4).  Retrieved May 19, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/impact-transformational-leadership/56080

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"Impact of Transformational Leadership on Subordinates Development and Performance."  Essaytown.com.  December 4, 2009.  Accessed May 19, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/impact-transformational-leadership/56080.