Implementing a Low Cost Design of a Satellite Sub-System That Enhancing Satellite Communication Research Paper

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¶ … Transfer through Satellite Communication Systems

Satellite Subsystems

Development of Satellite Subsystems

Low-cost Satellite Systems

Requirements for Developing Low-Cost Satellite Subsystems

Examples of Low-cost Satellite Subsystems

Implementation of Low-cost Satellite Subsystems

Constraints of Effective Implementation

Guidelines for Effective Implementation of Low-cost Satellite Subsystems

Implementing a Low-cost Satellite Subsystem:

There is an increasing need for the obtaining information from sources that are distributed in a wide area. Moreover, there is a growing need for the development and control of devices that disperse such information in a large area. Satellites have largely emerged as the necessary devices for the transmission and control of information within a huge area. This is largely because they facilitate communication to and from remote terminal units without the use of infrastructures needed for group-based communications systems in a wide service area. Therefore, a satellite communication system is regarded as an optimized for a specific kind of message transmission. However, the development and implementation of low-cost satellite communication systems is vital in enhancing communication. This is particularly because of the need to lessen the complexity of every satellite while maintaining the ability of the systems to provide communication services that are optimized to an expected kind of information transfer.

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TOPIC: Research Paper on Implementing a Low Cost Design of a Satellite Sub-System That Enhancing Satellite Communication Assignment

Communication via a satellite system requires the transmission of a signal from a ground station at an adequate satellite to signal ration (SNR). On the other hand, the transmitted signal by the satellite must be obtained at the anticipated ground station at an adequate SNR. The signal-to-noise ratio can be enhanced through increasing the received power of density of the signal or lessening the power density of the received noise. In order to customize the obtained power density, the directional antennas should be utilized to narrow the transfer beam width. This results in the increase of the section of transmitted power being obtained by the receiving through lessening the distribution of the transmitted power.

The implementation of a low-cost design satellite subsystem requires minimal number of the satellite systems used. In order to lessen the number of these satellites over a large geographic area, every utilized satellite must have an antenna in an area that covers a huge amount of the service area of the satellite. This is to enable the satellite systems to have a considerably low-gain wide-beamwidth antenna. In contrast, the ground station utilizes a high-gain narrow-beamwidth antenna to offer a high signal-to-noise ratio for communications.

Satellite Subsystems:

The contemporary satellite has become an extremely and more complex equipment consisting of over half-a-dozen main subsystems with thousand of parts. Since satellites entirely function in space, they are normally subjected to extremely hostile environments. There are several satellite subsystems that are used to enhance communication including & #8230;

Propulsion:

The propulsion subsystem is considered as the only partly component that facilitates or enables the satellite to function in an orbit. The other components used to get the satellite into orbit include electrical or chemical motors. These motors get the system into the appropriate orbit when deflected out of the suitable trajectory by the magnetic fields, atmospheric drag, or solar winds. In addition to changing the angle of the trajectory, the motors provokes the satellite back to the accurate altitude and either slow down or speed up the satellite.

Communications:

This subsystem deals with all the functions associated with transferring and receiving communications. It mainly consists of transmitters, receivers, and transponders and its size varies depending on the size of the satellite. it's important to note that the communications component is mainly used to provide a means of transmitting voice, data, and video in the orbit. In most cases, these subsystems are developed and designed to offer the greatest traffic capacity possible in order for the satellite to function effectively.

Power:

The effective functioning of satellite communication requires power subsystems that are commonly made up of the combination between solar panels and batteries to provide constant supply of electrical power. While solar panels are used when the satellite is in direct sunlight, the batteries are used when it's not in direct sunlight for the satellite to continue functioning ("Satellite Subsystems," par, 3). Solar cells act as the most common source of power to satellite systems though their efficiency tends to decline due to surface etching and aging.

Superstructure:

Since the satellite needs to survive the violent forces caused by the rocket ride into space in order to function effectively, the superstructure subsystem is an important component that supports it in space. This component provides support by lessening the vibration and shock that the internal components may experience during the launch.

Attitude:

As the satellite communication must face the earth every time, the attitude component acts as the control system to enable the satellite to be pointed appropriately. The attitude control systems are normally very small or tiny motors as compared to the propulsion subsystem. Together with the orbital control, the attitude control system is important to ensure that the narrow beam antennas are positioned correctly to the earth.

Thermal:

The main function of this subsystem is to regulate the temperature of the satellite's subsystems to ensure that differences in temperature don't end the useful period of the satellite. In most cases, the component regulates the temperature by dissipating the heat away from earth into space to prevent any interference with the operation of the satellite.

Telemetry and Command:

The telemetry and command subsystems enable the satellite to provide feedback to its operations center regarding its present state and its location in orbit. These components are usually simple beacon systems that are used to track the satellite in orbit at the ground station. Some of the other information provided to the ground system by these components includes the state of the operating system and programs, its operating temperature, and other internal functions.

The successful launch and operation of a communication satellite system is usually dependent on the safety and efficiency of the command structure. The command system is mainly used for controlling the communications system, making changes in attitude and orbit correction, and expanding the solar sails. Moreover, the command subsystem protects against errors in received commands developed in the command structure. The system also checks the validity and sent back through the telemetry component where it's re-checked in the computer (Dawoud, p.133). When the command instruction is accurately received, the instruction for execution is transmitted to the satellite. The entire process lessens chances of any malfunctioning since its takes minimal time that usually range from 5 to 10 seconds.

Tracking System:

The tracking subsystem is a vital component in the development of a satellite because it's used for the determination of the present orbit and the spacecraft's position. In order to achieve its functions, the component utilizes the acceleration and velocity sensors. The determination of the rate of change of the range through the tracking system involves the use of the control earth station to examine the Doppler shift of the telemetry carrier.

A typical telemetry, tracking, and command system is demonstrated in the following diagram & #8230;

Development of Satellite Subsystems:

The conceptual development and design of a satellite subsystem or system tends to be a major engineering problem and very challenging task due to its complexity. The development process of these systems can be regarded as a series of design activities that travel from inputs to outputs. Generally, this process can be categorized into two major sections i.e. The design of the important components of the satellite and the system engineering module. The design of the components involves the development of subsystems that have been previously discussed. On the contrary, the system engineering module includes several activities like mission and payload definition, selection of the launcher, space environment, ground and atmosphere, and the design of the preliminary and subsystems.

The definition and evaluation of the design process is conducted based on the mass, power, budgets, data rate, propellant, thermal, and data link. The other subsystems models to be considered in the design process are power, structure, data handling, communication, propulsion, and Attitude Dynamic and Control System (ADCS). There is an activity being considered to be performed in the future in development of satellite communication system known as the Multi-Disciplinary Optimization technique. As a major aspect in subsystems design, the activity will be an automatic technique for managing all subsystems and parameters and examining all the programming aspects. There are several challenges or problems that have characterized the development of satellite subsystems including & #8230;

More Development Time:

This is one of the major problems associated with this process because the design is usually complex and very challenging. For a long period of time, satellite development efforts have extended for a long period of time that is usually several years from its inception to formation. Actually, it's reported that the process extends past the time frame of an engineering college student. The major reasons attributed to the prolonged development time of these systems are their complexities and demands.

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