Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa Essay

Pages: 8 (2551 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Government

Political parties are increasingly vying for power: mandates like social protection are top in their agenda. This has increased the size of populations covered and served by the state. Research shows that the lack social protection is a costly economic and political nightmare (Cook & Kabeer, 2009)

State-citizen relations

Multiple researches have been done to establish the relationship between the state and its citizen. The state wants maximum power and authority while citizens want maximum liberty. This is impossible some form of compromise must be made. Reasonable authority and power should be made available to the government for smooth functioning. Citizens should be accorded reasonable liberty for the best development of their personality. It is thus evident that both the states and citizens are made for one another. The government's aim is to provide a favorable environment for the citizen while the citizen's aim is to enjoy reasonable liberty within the country.

The citizens depend on the state for law and order, safety and amenities and facilities such as railways, post and telegram, communication and education. Not all individuals that live within a state territory qualify to be called a citizen. Citizens are people who enjoy both political and civil rights that are recognized and guaranteed by the state. They can go to a court of law in case the rights are denied. They must loyal to the state and should be inspired to carry out all duties required by the state.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Essay on Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa Assignment

In summary, duties and rights define the relationships between the state and the citizens. The citizen should regard the state as a motherland and should be prepared to defend the country's constitution. Citizens are expected to participate in all affairs of the state. In non-democratic states such as absolute monarchy, people under the previews of the laws of governments are known as subjects. In this scenario, citizens are bound to obey all the decisions of the state, but have little say in the making of decisions. In a democratic government, rights to participate in the state affairs are granted. Such rights include the right to vote. However, not all citizens can participate to the same extent in all states affairs. Good citizens obey the laws and punitive actions are taken against those breaking the law.

Challenges of state social protection

World Bank (2001) has shown that several challenges hinder the implementation of social protection in many African states. First, the poor development of social security systems limit the realization of benefits associated with them. This has made many immigrant workers be penalized. The second challenge requires the states strengthen linkages between multidimensional approaches and social protection policy in order to analyze the vulnerability, poverty, and risks endangering the citizens. This results in increased amount of finances that are required in order to strengthen the linkages (World Bank, 2001).

Besides, some citizens do not welcome the idea of social protection. Therefore, states must link research, advocacy, and capacity building in order to support campaigns and create awareness for the right and advantages of social protection. The states also need to ensure that policy makers and practitioners have the analytical tools and information to advocate for social protection credibly and effectively. The other challenge is that some countries are adamant in embracing and implementing the idea of social protection. In order to resolve such challenges, the governments must open critical and independent networks with their neighboring countries. This will be helpful in evaluating, designing, and delivering diverse social protection interventions to the citizens. The other challenge is lack of enough resources to apply social interventions effectively. This can be resolved by bolstering the countries' economy ensuring that they are self-sustainable. This will empower governments to provide social protection to the citizens (Bender et al., 2013).


In conclusion, we see that welfare is a concept that requires the government to implement policies that will ensure the public provision of housing, education, and health services and in some cases at low prices or without charge. State Welfare ensures the provision of state-subsidized tertiary education and comprehensive health coverage. Duties and rights define the relationship between the state and its citizens. Citizens have a duty to obey the rules of the state and remain loyal to it. The state provides security, law and order, amenities and facilities such as railways, post and telegram, communication and education. One of the challenges that hinder the implementation of social protection in many African states is lack of enough resources and finances. This study shown that many governments can formulate development-oriented policies so that they can have enough finances to support the implementation of such programs.

Several factors influence policymaking and social policies in Africa. They include institutional features like elections and political party systems. Many African governments tend to reduce interest rates and raising government expenditures as a way of appealing to different constituencies. For this reason, welfare programs do not meet the intended target of helping the needy sections of the population. The main actors are the bureaucratic agencies who insist on high levels of bureaucratic integrity and institutional capacity. However, the important thing should be political commitment and capacity to implement social protection policies


Atkinson, A.B. (1995). "Incomes and the Welfare State. Cambridge" Cambridge University Press

Bender, K., Kaltenborn, M. & Pfeiderer, C. (2013). "Social Protection in Developing Countries: Reforming Systems" Routledge

Berg, A & Ostry, J.D (2011). Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?" IMF Staff Discussion Note SDN/11/08, International Monetary Fund

Bradley, D., Huber, E., Moller, S., Nielson, F. & Stephens, J.D. (2003) "Determinants of relative poverty in advanced capitalist democracies" American Sociological Review 68:3:


Cook, S., & Kabeer, N., "Socio-economic Security over the life course: A global review of the social protectionn." Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex

Handa, S., Devereux, S., & Webb, D. (2011). Social Protection for Africa's Children. London: Routledge Chapman & Hall

Hickey, S. (2007). "Conceptualizing the politics of social protection in Africa" University of Manchester.

Howell, F., (2001). "Social Assistance - Theoretical Background', in 'Social Protection in Asiaa and Pacific," ed. I. Ortiz, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Chapter 7

Mares, I. (2007).… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa.  (2014, March 12).  Retrieved April 5, 2020, from

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