Importance of Standard Phraseology in Aviation Research Proposal

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¶ … Phraseology is Vital for Aviation Pilots & Controllers

Proper pilot/controller phraseology proves to be a vital aspect in the aviation community.

Proper Phraseology (~4 pages)

Basic Concept of Pilot/Controller Phraseology

Traffic, eleven o'clock, one zero miles, southbound, converging...," one of a myriad of phrases that mirrors some of the current words and phrases (phraseology) pilots and air traffic controllers routinely use, also reflects the idea pilots/controllers need to be able to read, speak, write, and understand (communicate) to effectively understand each other. The development of international air traffic control (ATC) rules to address language and pilots' needs to communicate dates back to 1922. According to current Federal Aviation Regulations, pilots certificate applicants must be able to read, speak, write, and understand English (Ruiz, 2004, ¶ 2). Also, as Lintner and Buckles (1992) note: "The [ATC] system cannot work unless pilots and controllers can communicate effectively and understand each other" (Lintner and Buckles, as cited in Ruiz, ¶ 2). Ruiz notes that about 254 of 872 reported operational errors (violations of aircraft separation minima) that occurred during1990 resulted from some kind of communication concern. Although writing skills may not be mandated during some of the most critical stages of a pilot's work, they do prove to be significant during specific times. Today, oral communication skills as well as, computer literacy as related to flight automation prove particularly vital.

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In addition to air traffic controllers and pilots needing to understand each other, aircraft maintenance technicians, dispatchers, line service personnel, flight attendants, agents, and others must also be able to clearly convey pertinent information to each other and/for appropriate people at the right, as the safety of each flight ultimately, relies on effective communication between the parties involved with that flight (Ruiz, 2004).

Research Proposal on Importance of Standard Phraseology in Aviation Assignment

B. ATC Rules During the early history of aviation, the limited number aircraft were flying nullified the need for ground-based control of aircraft. In Europe, however, because aircraft frequently flew into other countries, it became necessary for the development of some kind of standard rules in this area. During 1919, "the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN), was created to develop 'General Rules for Air Traffic.' Its rules and procedures were applied in most countries where aircraft operated" (Air Traffic Control, N.d., ¶1). The United States (U.S.) decided not to sign the ICAN Convention at this time, however the U.S. later, after the Air Commerce Act of 1926, developed a set of air traffic rules period at this time, legislation authorized "the Department of Commerce to 'establish air traffic rules for the navigation, protection, and identification of aircraft, including rules as to safe altitudes of flight and rules for the prevention of collisions between vessels and aircraft'" (Air Traffic Control, N.d., ¶ 2)

The first rules brief and basic, instructed pilots not to begin their takeoff until "there is no risk of collision with landing aircraft and until preceding aircraft are clear of the field" (Ibid.). Along with the increase in air traffic, a number of airport operators realized such simple, general rules would not adequately prevent collisions. Consequently, based on visual signals, numerous individuals in the profession began to provide a form of air traffic control (ATC). During this time, controllers stood on the airfield and waved flags to communicate with pilots. Today, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), defines the following objectives of air traffic control to include:

Preventing collisions between aircraft in flight

Preventing collisions between aircraft on the maneuvering area of an airport and obstructions on that area

Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic

Providing advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights

Notifying appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assisting such organizations as required (Air Traffic Control, N.d. Air Traffic Control link section)

Figure 1 portrays the air traffic control center at Memphis, Tennessee during 1965.


Figure 1: Memphis Air Traffic Control Center (1965) (Air Traffic Control, N.d. Air Traffic Control link section).

Along with organizing and expediting the flow of traffic, the ATC system primarily aims to prevent a collision between aircraft operating in the system, and provide support for National Security and Homeland Defense. The ATC system also possesses the capability to facilitate other services; however these may be restricted by certain limitations, including "the volume of traffic, controller workload, frequency congestion, and quality of radar, higher priority duties. The physical inability to scan and detect particular situations in this category may also hinder or capabilities of the ATC system at times (Air Traffic..., 2008, p.2). Controllers may only provide additional service procedures to the extent higher priority duties and other circumstances permitted, however the controller may not consider providing additional services as optional, but rather a required practice, when his/her work situation permits. In accordance with the procedures and minima air traffic control service must be provided unless a deviation mandates conformity with "ICAO Documents, National Rules of the Air, or special agreements where the U.S. provides air traffic control service in airspace outside the U.S. And its possessions or: Other procedures/ a letter of agreement, FAA directive, or a military document.... or..." (Air Traffic..., 2008, p. 2). A deviation occurs when it is required assist an aircraft after an emergency occurs.

C. Pilot's Rules

III. Proper Phraseology - (~7 pages)

In" Perceptions of communication training among collegiate aviation flight educators," Lorelei E. Ruiz (2004) reports that aviation leaders noted that the words pilots and controllers choose may greatly affect a flight outcome.. Research notes that considerable deficiencies exist regarding the abilities of pilots and controllers to communicate, and contends that writing and verbal skills need to be routinely taught in the aviation community, Classes need to include spelling, grammar, punctuation, and speaking.

Even native English-speaking students-especially, as well as American students graduating from of high schools routinely appear inadequately prepared verbally and mathematically for any academic pursuit that challenges them, and-need some type support to help them improve their language proficiency (Ruiz, 2004, ¶ 3). When and individual speaks in a way that contradicts another person's perception of how a credible speaker ought to sound, the one listening may be less likely to tune in to and/or pay attention to what the person says. "Bruce E. Gronbeck, a professor of communication studies at the University of Iowa, teaches students various dialects to fit different situations. Experts call this practice "code switching." Without code switching, students may be typecast as ditzy or dumb. When a pilot or controller do not possess proper understanding and working knowledge of standard aviation phraseology, his/her worries may quickly expand to encompass matters of safety, life, and it. (Ruiz, 2004). a. Types of Phraseology

1.Control Instructions

In aviation, "Watchers" routinely observe pilots, with a mutual goal of safety and efficiency.. The Watchers, according to Thomas P. Turner (2007) in "Someone to watch over you observations from air traffic controllers on what GA pilots do right, and wrong, in the ATC system," are also known as air traffic controllers. Turner (2007) reports that a number of traffic controller related a number of improvements that need to implemented to better ensure safety, as well as better fit into the flow of traffic, obtain the best possible information while en route, and potentially expedite the handling and requests. Aviation's Watchers discussed radio communication most frequently serves as the link between aircraft and ATC. A number of comments the controllers contributed related to radio technique. A common ATC complaint focused on the pilot who transmits on a new frequency prior to listening; consequently "stepping on" other transmissions. One veteran controller compared this practice to one personally be interrupting another during a conversation (Turner, 2007 ¶4) the impatient pilot who makes a radio call, yet does not receive an immediate reply is known as a corollary. When a corollary receive an immediate response, he/she retransmits almost immediately, attempting to receive an answer.

Because air traffic controllers traditionally work more than several frequencies simultaneously, they may have heard the pilot's initial call and plan to respond, as they are also communicating with another pilot, they may be slow to respond.

Even when a controller is working only a small geographic area there may be military traffic on UHF frequencies that require ATC attention. Sometimes pilots think it's an excuse for missing a radio call" (Turner, 2007, ¶7). The opposite often proves true many times as controllers frequently communicate "on the land line" with other controllers to coordinate other airplane movements or attempt to satisfy special requests.) Using standard phraseology and making a point to remain professional and polite, according to Turner (2007) proves to be the best way to deal with such situations. In addition to frequency congestion, another hazard relating to poor communication technique frequently resurfaces.

One controller confirmed what numerous pilots suspect, that "pilots who sound like amateurs will be moved out of the way" (Turner, 2007, ¶ 9) for the more professional- sounding aviators. For a pilot to receive expeditious handling and have… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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