Inclusion in Secondary Schools Research Paper

Pages: 2 (657 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 2  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Teaching

Inclusion in Secondary Schools

Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, was passed in 1975. In 1990, the law was reenacted as Public Law 101-476, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). From IDEA came the concept of Least Restrictive Environment (LRE), which means that disabled students must have access to the general curriculum, be taught with their nondisabled peers, and that special classes or schools are permissible only when disabled students' achievement is compromised in general education settings. The term "inclusion" arose from considerations of what constitutes a LRE (Hasbrouck, 2007; Walker, 2004).

Definition of Inclusion

According to Hasbrouck (2007), inclusion is the placement in general education settings of students identified as having disabilities such as mental retardation, emotional disturbance, physical (orthopedic, visual, hearing) impairment, or learning disabilities. The inclusion might be full or partial. Full inclusion refers to full time placement in regular classes; Partial inclusion is part-time placement in regular classes.

For optimal implementation, the inclusion models require more than one educator in the classroom. Walker (2004) suggested four ways in which the teachers work together:

1. Interactive teaching: Partners or teams work interactively to teach and present concepts to the whole class.

2. Station teaching: One teacher instructs a small group while other teachers monitor and support small groups of students at different learning stations.Download full Download Microsoft Word File
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3. Parallel teaching: Several teachers present the same information or content to several small groups.

4. Alternative teaching: One teacher provides specific instruction and skill-building to a small group while another teacher monitors the rest of the students while they are working on the same concept.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Inclusion

TOPIC: Research Paper on Inclusion in Secondary Schools Assignment

According to Hasbrouck (2007), proponents of inclusion claim that inclusion benefits the disabled student by: increasing positive social contact with peers, reducing stigma associated with special placements, and exposing the student to the traditional curriculum.

Critics suggest several disadvantages of inclusion, doubting that the general education system is able to meet the wide range of… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Inclusion in Secondary Schools" Research Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Inclusion in Secondary Schools.  (2010, May 13).  Retrieved December 5, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Inclusion in Secondary Schools."  13 May 2010.  Web.  5 December 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Inclusion in Secondary Schools."  May 13, 2010.  Accessed December 5, 2021.