indepth analysis of Mental Health Essay

Pages: 15 (5280 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 15  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Psychology - Disorders

Hence, suicide will, as expected, follow from a failure to perform well and from a blow to one's self-esteem. Furthermore, different cultures condemn suicide to different degrees. For instance, one argument accounting for the few suicides recorded in the African-American community is that the community views suicide as unacceptable behavior. On the other hand, murder rates in the community are much greater, as victims as well as perpetrators. In fact, a larger number of homicides that involve African-American individuals are precipitated by the victim, consciously or unconsciously. The Afro-American culture seems to regard victim-precipitated homicides as a better way to die than taking one's own life (David Lester, 2008).

2. Describe how physical, psychological, and social factors influence health.

i. Influence of Physical Factors

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Physical environmental factors which count as vital contributors of, or deterrents to, societal health include air pollution, physical closeness to toxic areas, and other harmful substances (classic environmental epidemiology's main focus); built environment and community layout (land-use mix, transportation systems, street connectivity, etc.); and access to different health-linked resources (unhealthy or nutritious foods, healthcare, recreational resources, etc.). One of the chief environmental aspects impacting health is physical exposures (e.g., air pollution). Considerable literature is devoted to impacts of particulate matter exposure (air-borne liquid droplets and solid particles) on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Researchers have ascertained certain physiologic mechanisms through which such exposures impact vascular, inflammatory, and autonomic processes. Work environments are another established key factor impacting health status, health inequalities, preventive care access, and occupational safety. Physical workplace conditions (such as, exposure to toxic substances like mercury, lead, and asbestos), and physical work demands (including carrying heavy burdens), ergonomic issues and human factors have the potential to impact worker safety and wellbeing. Job stress (high external worker demands coupled with low rewards or control) and stressful psychosocial workplace climate are found to be key worker health determinants and are associated with self-reported unhealthiness, negative mental health effects, and chronic illness markers. Job strain exposure demonstrates a powerful social gradient that drives employee health inequities (Woolf SH & Aron L, 2013).

ii. Influence of Psychological Factors

Care-seeking behaviors result from a normally-unconscious benefit-cost analysis. Only after asking older adults why they made certain choices and what they experienced do beliefs and attitudes become clear. Accepting a mental healthcare referral and engaging in it suggests an equalizing of enabling factors, predisposing factors, and the perceived care necessity (Jo Anne Sirey, 2008).

There is considerable survival value inherent in psychological processes. Pain experiences are influenced by numerous psychological factors. The decision to deal with a nasty stimulus and interpret it as uncomfortable and painful may be considered examples of a couple of factors that involve ordinary psychological processes. Pain is undoubtedly a subjective phenomenon, and while it definitely links to physical body processes, the response of a person to a fresh painful episode is impacted and driven by prior experience. Surely, if people didn't learn from experience, managing pain and maintaining good health would be very hard (Steven J. Linton & William S. Shaw, 2011). Besides the health concepts of individuals, their emotions and psychological variables influence their participation in healthy behaviors. Thus, discovering key complementary psychological aspects of an individual's compliance with health impairing and promoting lifestyles constitute another important health psychology task. Health psychology must empower people towards developing self-protective plans as well as towards revising policies and laws for the purpose of improving socio-environmental conditions which commonly pose public health threats (Evely Boruchovitch1 & Birgitte R. Mednick, 2002).

iii. Influence of Social Factors

Health gets adversely impacted by stress through the promotion of behavioral coping reactions damaging to health (like insomnia, smoking, alcohol/drug abuse, etc.) as well as through the activation of physiological systems like the HPA cortical axis and sympathetic nervous system. Recurrent or chronic physiological system activation is believed to increase individual risks of developing numerous psychiatric and physical health problems. Existing literature indicates that the central social support factor with 'stress buffer' function is the view that other people (even a single reliable source) can be counted on for appropriate support. Social support programs generally attempt to improve health outcomes among patients suffering from acute, life-threatening ailments. HIV, cancer and chronic, incapacitating disease-diagnosed patients, or those who have just suffered an acute health event such as a stroke or heart attack, are contacted and offered a health intervention designed to improve function and reduce secondary events. Most commonly, peer support is offered to patients (Sheldon Cohen, 2004).

Part III

Answers to questions in this section relate to the TV show, 'Intervention', which tricks alcoholics, dope fiends, and other more inventive substance abusers into thinking they are invited to a video interview for an addiction-related documentary when, in truth, their family members are waiting at a hotel room to deal with them and get them on the road to wellness. The last fifteen minutes of 'Intervention' episodes are normally dedicated to the actual intervention always headed by a trained therapist, who already warns the tearful enablers that they're putting their signature on a death certificate ( GINIA BELLAFANTE, 2008).

1. Describe tolerance and withdrawal.

The term 'tolerance' is used to refer to a condition wherein an individual requires more of any substance they're consuming for achieving the very effects (highs or intoxication levels) they earlier experienced with smaller doses of the substance (TOLERANCE, DEPENDENCE AND WITHDRAWAL, 2016). After they develop high drug/alcohol tolerance, they have to have more of it to feel the same intoxication levels their bodies are used to (Drug and Alcohol Tolerance vs. Dependence, 2016).

The word 'withdrawal' may be employed to describe a collection of symptoms which may surface after complete cessation or considerable reduction in intake quantity of a drug that an individual is addicted to. Withdrawal symptoms differ based on various factors (e.g., type of drug) and are generally the exact opposite to drug-induced effects. The human body always attempts to maintain balance. When it begins relying on a drug for regular body function and its consumption is ceased, an attempt will be made by the individual's body to offset the changes, causing withdrawal (TOLERANCE, DEPENDENCE AND WITHDRAWAL, 2016).

2. Analyze various types of impulse behaviors.

Numerous maladaptive and adaptive impulsivity manifestations have been explained by clinical- and personality- related scholarly works (Richard F. Farmer & Jeannie A. Golden). Four key impulsivity variations may be analyzed as follows.

i. Attention Deficit Hyper-Activity Disorder (ADHD)

Individuals suffering from ADHD might experience "over-activeness," concentration difficulties and controlling impulsivity (i.e., they may act before thinking through the outcome of their actions). While ADHD has no cure, one can manage it successfully, and a few symptoms might improve with age (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 2016).

ii. Antisocial personality disorder (APD)

APD is marked by a lasting pattern of indifference to others' rights; people with APD usually climb over the line, breaching those rights. APD-diagnosed individuals typically feel no or scant empathy towards others, and do not perceive any issue with flouting or bending the law to suit their personal wishes and requirements. APD often starts in teenage or childhood and persists into adulthood (Steve Bressert, 2016).

iii. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

BPD constitutes a major mental problem characterized by a continuous pattern of unstable conduct, moods, functioning and self-image. Such experiences typically lead to unstable relationships and impulsivity. Individuals suffering from BPD might experience severe episodes of depression, anxiety and anger, lasting anywhere from some hours to some days (Borderline Personality Disorder, 2016).

iv. Sotos Syndrome

This disorder is accompanied by a unique facial appearance, childhood overgrowth, and delayed development of motor and mental capacities or learning issues. Sotos syndrome-diagnosed individuals usually suffer from intellectual disability, with a majority of them suffering from behavioral issues as well. Very few Sotos-diagnosed individuals develop cancer (largely during childhood years). However, no one cancer type has been found to occur most commonly with the disorder (Sotos syndrome, 2016).

3. Evaluate the effectiveness of the proscribed treatment methods.

CBT proves valuable in treating impulse control issues. However, there are some cognitive methods whose application has actually aggravated symptoms (for instance, thought-stopping to treat kleptomania). Cognitive-behavioral therapeutic methods utilized in impulse control condition treatment go from purely cognitive (for instance, cognitive restructuring) to purely behavioral (for instance, exposure through response prevention). But a majority of research works have integrated the two and, hence, knowing which aspects gave rise to therapeutic changes is not easy. In choosing a method to apply to clinical practice, clinicians must come up with an idiographic concept from CBT case formulation… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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