Why India Changed Foreign Economic Foreign Policy Since 1991 Dissertation

Pages: 24 (6660 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: History - Asian

INDIA'S EMERGING POWER

FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY

In its history, India sometimes substituted "sloganeering" for the implementation of a real foreign policy for its country. Now, however, Indian no longer maintains the position of being on the outside edge of international politics. Currently, perceived as more than a mere "South Asian" power, India has begun to engage in the international arena.

India's rise from estrangement from international affairs to purposefully engaging to establish an effective foreign policy began during the time India, simultaneously fought for its independence. Principles of India's foreign policy which emerged while the country engaged in a number of significant causes of the time reportedly have stood the test of time.

During the dissertation, a qualitative case study, as the researcher investigates India's emerging power and foreign economic policy, the study also relates a number of lessons history records regarding India, including its struggles against colonialism and India's potential to become a potent world power in the future.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Foundations of India's Foreign Policy

Area of Study

Background of Study

Rationale and Significance of Study

Organization of Study

Research Questions

Conclusion

CHAPTER II

CHANGES AT HOME AND IN THE FOREIGN FIELD

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History Records India's Emerging Power

13

India's Break in Growth

15

India's Economy Split

17

CHAPTER III

CONCLUDING CONSIDERATIONS

21

India's Economic Growth

21

Recount of Study

23

Conclusion

24

BIBLIOGRAPHY

26

ABBREVIATIONS

Dissertation on Why India Changed Foreign Economic Foreign Policy Since 1991 Assignment

ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (India's Foreign Policy… 2010, ¶ 10).

CTBT: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (India's Foreign Policy… 2010, ¶ 4).

IOR-ARC: Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation (India's Foreign Policy

2010, ¶ 9).

NPT: Nuclear non-Proliferation Treaty (India's Foreign Policy… 2010, ¶ 4).

SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India's Foreign Policy… 2010, ¶

9).

SAFTA: South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) (India's Foreign Policy… 2010, ¶ 9).

SAPTA: South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement (India's Foreign Policy… 2010, ¶

9).

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

"The foundations of India's foreign policy were laid during the freedom movement when… [India's] leaders, even when fighting for independence, were engaged with the great causes of the time"

(India's Foreign Policy… 2010, ¶ 1).

Foundations of India's Foreign Policy

In the past, according to Harsh V. Pant (2008) Professor in Department of Defense Studies at Kings College London in the book, Contemporary debates in Indian foreign and security policy: India negotiates its rise in the international system, India sometimes substituted "sloganeering" for the implementation of a real foreign policy for its country. Now, however, Indian no longer maintains the position of being on the outside edge of international politics. Currently, perceived as more than a mere "South Asian" power, India has begun to engage in the international arena.

India's rise from estrangement from international affairs to purposefully engaging to establish an effective foreign policy began during the time India, simultaneously fought for its independence. Principles of India's foreign policy which emerged while the country engaged in a number of significant causes of the time reportedly have stood the test of time. India's purports it beliefs ideally include the pursuit of not only of maintaining friendly relations with all countries of the world, but also "the resolution of conflicts by peaceful means, the sovereign equality of all states, independence of thought and action as manifested in the principles of Non-alignment, and equity in the conduct of international relations" (India's Foreign Policy… 2010,

¶ 1). During the dissertation, a qualitative case study, as the researcher investigates India's emerging power and foreign economic policy, the study also relates a number of lessons history records regarding India, including its struggles against colonialism.

Area of Study

The location for the present study focuses on India; however, as the study considers India's foreign economic policy, the information encompasses areas throughout the world. India, also known as the Republic of India, with a population of 1,080,264,400, has 28 states and seven union territories (India 2010). India's constitution defines India as a "sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. Like the United States, India has a federal form of government. However, the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and has adopted a British-style parliamentary system" (Background Note: India 2010, Government Section, ¶ 1).

The Indian government exercises its broad administrative powers in the name of the president, whose duties are largely ceremonial. A special electoral college elects the president and vice president indirectly for 5-year terms. Their terms are staggered, and the vice president does not automatically become president following the death or removal from office of the president. (Background Note: India 2010, Government Section, ¶ 2).

Indians who live in the northern part of the country primarily speak Hindustani, while in business settings, most in India speak English. Other languages those in India speak include: Bengali, Hindi, and 13 other (official) languages, which include Assamese, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu.

Religions practiced in India include Hindu (80%), Muslim (13%), others (7%). Figure 1 depicts one detailed map of India (left) and the other depicting India's position among other countries.

Figure 1: Maps of India and other countries (India 2010).

Background of Study

The article, "India's Foreign Policy - 50 Years of Achievement," (2010) asserts that India has historically positioned itself as a leader in the global to struggle against colonialism. India's Independence served as a catalyst to remove the remnants of colonialism in a number of other developing world countries, predominantly in Africa. In 1946, India was the first country to address the question of racial discrimination rampant in South Africa. During 1986, India initiated the set up of the AFRICA (Action for Resistance to Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid) Fund at the 8th NAM Summit in Harare. In 1993, the year the AFRICA Fund ended, India served as the Chairman for that organization's committee.

Currently, India in its seventh decade following its independence, Pant (2008) explains, stands at a major cross-roads in its relations with other countries throughout the world. India's position as a powerful world economy allocates significant clout to India on the global stage which only a few other states match. "Coupled with a highly professional armed forces well-ensconced in a liberal democratic polity, India is emerging as an entity that can decisively shift the global balance of power" (Pant, p. 1). Consequently, albeit, India's previous perceptions of the rest of the world increasingly hampers India's ability to appreciate and aptly adjust to its growing stature in a number of international realms. India's recent economic success as it emerges a key global entity, coupled with its struggles define itself, and comprehend its power capabilities as well as lim-its of its newly acquired power prove particularly challenging to the county.

Pant (2008) contends that as long as an emerging consensus exists among Indian policymakers as well as the bigger strategic community that the old foreign policy framework, even if adequate at the time when created, no longer possesses the capability to meet contemporary challenges of the times. Indubitably, a dearth of consensus exists regarding a strategic frame-work for India to structure its external relations in the present global environment. Pant asserts:

But the world is not waiting for India to put its own house in order and to come to terms with its rising profile. Already, demands are being made on India by the international community, expecting it to play a global role in consonance with its rising stature. India is now being invited to the G-8 sum-mits, is being called on to shoulder global responsibilities from nuclear pro-liferation to global warming to Iraq, and is being viewed as much more than a mere "South Asian: power.

(Pant2008, p. 1)

In the past, as it aimed to position itself in the global community, India purportedly somewhat skillfully attempted to implement "sloganeering" by utilizing issues like third world unity and total nuclear disarmament to enhance its presence on the international stage. In the realm of international politics, albeit, the actions, behavior, and decisions of major powers, more than any other factor, primarily determines the path and outcome of international politics. As a minor power not possessing actual leverage in the international system, India could basically do nothing more than criticize the major powers for their attitude that they could adeptly aggressively expand their influence over other countries. As India itself, however, increased its eco-nomic and military capabilities; transitioning itself to the middle of global politics, other countries have asked it to accept the position of a stakeholder in the same system that India once perceived with suspicion (Pant 2008; India's Foreign Policy… 2010).

Strong advocacy of universal and total disarmament, with nuclear disarmament being allocated the highest priority constitutes another "sloganeering" effort of Indian foreign policy. In this effort, India accepted a number of initiatives within the United Nations as well as outside the organization like the following:

In 1988, India presented an action plan aimed to usher in the idealistic nuclear weapons free and non-violent world order to the 3rd Session of the… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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