Industrial Revolution: Result Term Paper

Pages: 6 (2049 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 11  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Agriculture

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In his famous doctoral thesis The Division of Labor in Society (1893) Durheim examines the forces that hold societies together and calls the force, 'solidarity." Durkheim theorizes that primitive societies that are characterized by a simple division of labor and a homogenous population (the pre-Industrial age societies) are held together by "Mechanical Solidarity." On the other hand, societies with a high division of labor or increased specialization (i.e., modern societies) are held together by "Organic Solidarity." In his view, the division of labor had made workers more alien to one another and yet, paradoxically, they were more dependent upon one another because no single worker in the age of "specialization" could hope to build a product by himself. Durkheim thought that the alienated workers of the modern age would feel less alienated if he knew that they were part of the whole and their individual actions were contributing to the accomplishment of a common goal. (Jones, 1986, pp. 35-36)

Conclusion

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As we saw in this essay, the 18th century Industrial Revolution in Britain is undoubtedly one of the defining moments in human history. Its effects have been all pervasive and are still being felt in different parts of the earth. Although there were a number of causes behind the Industrial Revolution, most historians are in agreement that the Agriculture Revolution which occurred concurrently in Britain helped to trigger and sustain it. The Industrial Revolution also led to far-reaching and significant social changes that shook the very fabric of the societies in which it occurred. Understandably, leading philosophers of the time such as Karl Marx and Emile Durheim were influenced by its consequences and have tried to come to grips with them in their works.

References

Ashton, T.S. (1997). The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Four Field System." (2004) Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/003f.html

TOPIC: Term Paper on Industrial Revolution: Result of an Assignment

Jones, R.A. (1986) Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to Four Major Works. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. (1894) "The Communist Manifesto." The Project Gutenberg Etext. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext93/manif12.txt

Overton, Mark. (2002). "Agricultural Revolution in England 1500-1850." BBC History Homepage. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/industrialisation/agricultural_revolution_01.shtml

The Seed Drill." (2004). Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/004f.html

The 'Neolithic Revolution' occurred 10~12,000 years ago when people moved from social systems based on hunting and gathering to more complex communities dependent on agriculture and the domestication of animals

The premise is that the technological innovations of the 18th century alone would not have been enough to start the Industrial Revolution if sufficient labor had not been available for running the factories in the urban cities.

There is some controversy about the role of Townshend in improving agriculture; some feel that his role has been exaggerated. Nevertheless, there is little doubt that crop rotation (even if Townshend did not introduce it) played a major role in improving agrarian output in the 18th century.

Due to selling of land by noblemen, who had fallen on hard times, to rich landowners; confiscation and re-selling of monastery land by the government, and increased expulsion of peasants from the lands by new landowners

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