Term Paper: Infant Mortality

Pages: 9 (2269 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Children  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] Each year up to $9.7 billion is expended for treating infants suffering from fetal alcohol syndrome. Similarly every year the health care department spends more than 500$ million for treating infants suffering from intra-uterine cocaine exposure. Asides these, birth complications that arise due to smoking incurs an additional $2 billion in expenditure. [Centers For Disease Control and Prevention]. If enough awareness is created by means of active counseling programs to stop alcohol and substance abuse during pregnancy we would not only be saving the precious lives of infants and preventing many serious problems like cerebral palsy, autism etc. But also be saving a huge chunk of money that could be allotted to improve other areas of maternal care.

Government Initiatives

The Healthy Start Program

Several federal and state government initiative programs are operational in Philadelphia and there have been considerable positive results. The Healthy Start Initiative program started way back in the 1990's has reaped good results but still there is much to be desired. The West and Southwest regions of Philadelphia, one of the project areas covered under the "Healthy Start Initiative" is still falling way behind the healthy care 2010 objectives. Between 1998 and 2000, the three years under study, the west and southwest regions had 181 infant deaths giving a total infant mortality rate of 14.3 deaths per 1000 which is more than double the 2010 objective of 7. 2 deaths per 1000. [Deborah D. Roebuck]

Healthy Beginnings Plus This is another program managed by the "Division of Early Childhood, Youth and Women's Health" which contracts hospitals in Philadelphia to provide maternal health care for all irrespective of their economic situation. The Maternity Services program (MSP) in particular is specially suited for uninsured and poor people and provides quality prenatal care. By having contracts with good health care clinics the healthy beginnings plus program strives to make sure that quality health care is easily available.. [Division of Early Childhood, Youth and Women's Health]


Though the nationwide infant mortality rates are declining every year, we are still a long way away from the health 2000 objective of containing infant mortality rate to 4.5 per 1000 live births. With a large population of women who are economically backward West Philadelphia continues to have the highest rate of infant mortality in the whole of the nation. Inspite of the several healthcare initiatives undertaken by the government, quality health care still remains out of reach of a segment of the community and consequently there still remains a clear difference in the infant mortality rates between the different communities in Philadelphia. It is important to address this disparity by targeting intervention programs for the high-risk group. (African-American).

The problem of the lack of quality primary care providers for the economically downtrodden people needs to be addressed immediately in order to contain the high infant mortality rate. In conclusion we can say that the problem is not just about increasing the funds to the state but more importantly, is concerned with the proper allocation of the resources to the needy areas within the city. Effective management of resources, increasing the awareness among the less privileged people and providing easy access to Preconceptional, perinatal and neonatal care holds the key for successful containment of the prevailing high infant mortality rate in the city of Philadelphia.


Eric Gibson et.al, "Effect of Nonviable infant on the Infant Mortality rate of Philadelphia," American Journal of Public Health, August 2000, Vol 90, pg 1303

Center for Disease Control, "Infants Death / Mortality: Data for U.S. In 2001," Retrieved on March 13th 2004 from, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/infmort.htm

Lorraine Halinka Malcoe, "The Effect of Congenital Anomalies on Mortality Risk

In White and Black Infants," American Journal of Public Health, June 1999, Pg

Mary Harkins-Schwarz, "Philadelphia Interdisciplinary Youth Fatality Review team," Retrieved on 17th March 2004, from, http://www.phmc.org/pdf/99ReportPIYFRT.pdf.

This Utah Department of Health (UDOH), "Infant Mortality,

Retrieved on March 17th 2004, at http://hlunix.hl.state.ut.us/matchiim/main/infntdth/define.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Maternal, infant and Child Health"

Retrieved on March 17th 2004, from, http://www.healthypeople.gov/document/html/volume2/16mich.htm

Deborah D. Roebuck, "West and Southwest Philadelphia; Healthy Start Initiative,"

Retrieved on March 16th 2004, from, https://performance.hrsa.gov/mchb/MCHProjects/AbstractIndexes/..%5CCollection%5CHealthy%20Start%5C2003%5COther%5CHTML%5CWestPhila.html

Division of Early Childhood, Youth and Women's Health', "Healthy Beginnings Plus: Prenatal Services," Retrieved on March 17th 2004, at http://www.phila.gov/health/duplicate1/RG_2002-web.PDF

Maternity Care Coalition (MCC), "The Healthy Living Project Sponsors HIV / AIDS Workshop On World AIDS Day," Retrieved on March 18th 2004, from, http://www.aegis.com/news/pr/2000/PR001148.html.

John F. Street, "Vital Statistics Report 2000: City of Philadelphia,"

Retrieved on March 16th 2004, from, http://www.phila.gov/health/units/ahs/vitalstats/2000_Vital_Statistics__Report.pdf.

Jerry Janda, "West Philadelphia Youths Hang Out on the Health Corner,"

Retrieved on… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 9-page paper:  $28.88


2.  Buy + remove from all search engines
(Google, Yahoo, Bing) for 30 days:  $38.88


3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)


4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Infant Maternal Mortality Research Proposal

Mortality for Children Essay

Message Strategy Maternal and Infant Mortality Essay

Infant Feeding Practices in Africa Term Paper

Achieving Baby Friendly Hospital Designation Term Paper

View 640 other related papers  >>

Cite This Term Paper:

APA Format

Infant Mortality.  (2004, March 18).  Retrieved May 25, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/infant-mortality/7406538

MLA Format

"Infant Mortality."  18 March 2004.  Web.  25 May 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/infant-mortality/7406538>.

Chicago Format

"Infant Mortality."  Essaytown.com.  March 18, 2004.  Accessed May 25, 2019.