Term Paper: Inmates Relationships With There Family Compared and Contrast of Drug Use

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family and community support and the outcomes of drug abuse treatment programs in female prisoners prior to family and community reintegration

Various research study designs have been utilized in understanding the different aspects associated with or linked to successful completion of drug abuse treatment programs and this is true of the study of those who are presently incarcerated in prison system and while family and social support has been mentioned in previous research studies conducted among prison populations measuring the success of drug abuse program completion this aspect as not been studied specifically to measure the impact that family and social support has on the success of prison inmates in their completion of drug abuse treatment programs. The work of Pelissier (2004) informs this study that the majority of women in one study who were in prison reported: "...they will be responsible for minor children when released from prison. Thus, treatment entry and retention may be enhanced by women's recognition that substance use treatment may have a positive effect on their family relationships." (Pelissier, 2004) the report of Pelissier also reports findings that include "social ties and external incentives are associated with treatment entry but also with treatment retention." (Pelissier, 2004)

FAMILY and COMMUNITY SUPPORT and the OUTCOMES of DRUG ABUSE TREATMENT PROGRAMS in FEMALE PRISONERS PRIOR to FAMILY and COMMUNITY REINTEGRATION

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

I. INTRODUCTION

An evaluation funded by the National Institute of Justice entitled: "An Outcome Evaluation of the Forever Free Substance Abuse Treatment Program: One-Year Post-Release Outcomes" states that women who are drug-dependent "pose a serious problem for criminal justice authorities for several reasons" as the rate of women imprisoned has grown at a rate much faster than that of men and the needs of female prisoners are different and more diverse that that of male prisoners. This is problematic because jurisdictions generally do not have treatment programs that are specifically appropriate for and designed for females in prison with drug abuse and dependence problems. Because of relapses in use of drugs the rate of women turning around and heading right back to prison are extremely high. Previous research findings suggest that drug abuse treatment in combination with family and social support is more successful than treatment in the absence of such support. Various research study designs have been utilized in understanding the different aspects associated with or linked to successful completion of drug abuse treatment programs and this is true of the study of those who are presently incarcerated in prison system and while family and social support has been mentioned in previous research studies conducted among prison populations measuring the success of drug abuse program completion this aspect as not been studied specifically to measure the impact that family and social support has on the success of prison inmates in their completion of drug abuse treatment programs. The following research proposal however, does just that and following a review of literature in this area of study sets out the proposed research design in order to study the impact of family and social support on prison inmates who are attempting to successfully complete drug treatment programs.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

The report entitled: "California State Prisoners with Children: Findings From the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities" states that it is reported:."..recent incarceration trends in California state prisons have profound implications and likely unintended consequences for the children of incarcerated parents." (Prendergast, 2003) Furthermore, it has been found that individuals and specifically, parents who are prepared for reintegration into their Family have more success and are less likely to return to the prison system.

The work of Zinston (2006) entitled: "Preparing Incarcerated Parents for Reintegration in Families: An Evaluative Study" states that in recent years, many leaders in the field of corrections have come to the conclusion that the part of the role of the correctional system should be to prepare offenders to reintegrate into society. It has become a common school of thought that rather than simply punishing or incapacitating offenders, it may be more effective in the long run to help them reintegrate into society after they are released from prison." (Prendergast, 2003) a focus that plans reentry of the offender and specifically "offender rehabilitation programs have become much more prevalent." (Prendergast, 2003) Stated to be program with a design that is "...very beneficial is one that focuses on strengthening the relationships between offenders and their families." (Prendergast, 2003) report presented to the National Institute of Justice and National Institute on Drug Abuse in 1997 entitled: "Drug Use and Criminality Among Drug-Involved Arrestees: An Experimental Study of an HIV Prevention Intervention" reports a study that employed interventions that "focused on two factors believed to be associated with behavioral change:

1) Social support, including perceptions of peer norms favoring risk reduction and encouragement of others to change behavior; and 2) Removal of practical barriers that might discourage behavioral change." (Rhodes and Gross, 1987)

In this study Rhodes and Gross report that the case managers "sought to discover topics that interested the clients and could be a basis for engagement and ongoing interaction..." which is stated to have included children and family. This was in a method that included "multiple letters and repeated telephone calls" of interaction with friends and family members in establishment of a network "of linkages with clients who were difficult to reach directly." (Rhodes and Gross, 1987)

This program operates under the principle and rule that no information was to be revealed to the authorities other than overt plans to commit homicide or suicide and these guidelines were obeyed in total., the research design in this study involved a baseline interview in which the core needs of the client were determined and a structured interview informed the case manager concerning the client's "situation, attitudes, and motivation regarding drug use and treatment." (Rhodes and Gross, 1987) Because the clients in this particular study there were various issues that factored in and resulted in lacks of controls in this approach to study familial influences upon drug users cessation of the use of drugs however, this study does report use of positive reinforcement principles in cognitive therapy being successful in assisting some of the individuals when combined with integration of interaction with family members for support for the purposes of abstaining from drug use.

The work of Bernadette Pelissier (2004) entitled: "Gender Differences in Substance Use Treatment Entry and Retention Among Prisoner with Substance Use Histories" published in the American Journal of Public Health states that "women with average/good family ties were more likely to enter treatment, whereas men with average-good family ties were less likely to do so." (Pelissier, 2004) the study additionally states findings as follows: "Most women reported they will be responsible for minor children when released from prison. Thus, treatment entry and retention may be enhanced by women's recognition that substance use treatment may have a positive effect on their family relationships." (Pelissier, 2004)

This study also states findings that social ties: "...and external incentives are associated with treatment entry but also with treatment retention." (Pelissier, 2004) Gender specific differences are noted as being present in the successful reintegration into society for women in overcoming "unique social, emotional, and physical challenges that impeded their ability to integrate smoothly back into society following a period of incarceration." (National Institute of Justice, 2005) Reported is the "Forever Free Program" which is a "...voluntary, intensive residential treatment program for women inmates with substance abuse problems at the California Institution for Women in Corona, California." (National Institute of Justice, 2005) This program involves an 8-week substance abuse education course and while this course does not involve family members per se it is a 'therapeutic community' setting which has been found to be highly effective in the reintegration of drug and domestic violence offenders back into society and into a more principles and peer-accepted manner of living. The National Institute of Justice report states findings of higher recidivism rates among those who had been reincarcerated and who had "experienced more childhood victimization; they reported more post-release drug use, intimate partner violence, and stress, less support from family and friends..." (National Institute of Justice, 2005) the Therapeutic Community drug treatment model is a program based on the view that a drug addiction is a "symptom of the dysfunctional behavior in the addicts' life and not the cause of the dysfunctional behavior in the adult's life..." (National Institute of Justice, 2005) it is noted that the program when used requires modification when its use is for men rather than women.

Noted as risk for failure in the program were the following:

psychiatric history - (formal diagnosis and/or emotional or psychological difficulties);

If she has contemplated suicide;

If she has attempted suicide; or if she has difficulty in controlling her temper or her behavior is hostile/violent. (National Institute of Justice, 2005)

It is noted as extremely important that treatment be gender single for it to be most successful. The factor noted as being most critical however,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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