Instructional Design Gagne's Nine Events Term Paper

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Instructional Design

Gagne's nine events of instruction relates to a classroom process that ensures optimal learning. The History of Mathematics lesson appears to adhere to the majority of the nine events. In the lesson, very little attention is given to the role of the instructor during the various stages of the lesson. Indeed, it appears that events no. iv and v, where the instructor provides learners with stimulus and guidance. These could be implied in the way addressed below, but are not explicitly stated by the lesson plan.

The History of Mathematics lesson focuses on combining the topic of the lesson with learning students to use library media to develop their research skills. In other words, students are to arrive at the answers and information required for the lesson on their own, with guidance from the teacher. The first step of Gagne's process is gaining the students' attention. This is addressed by actively engaging learners from the beginning of the lesson. Specifically, each learner is to select a partner and decide which role (a or B) each will play.

In the second step, the students are informed of the objective by an outline that explains the general objectives of the lesson. They are given the opportunity to choose their own topic from those suggested by the outline. This further extends the first step, and keeps students engaged with the subject matter.

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In terms of the third step, it is assumed that the students have learned how to use encyclopedias prior to this lesson. They use their knowledge base to identify research terms and locate the relevant information required for the lesson. This step also entails using previously learned skills to identify and write down the most important points of the article. The partners use each other's existing knowledge base to enhance their own learning: each partner reads his or her points to the other, and together they add to and improve what has been written. The lesson continues with partners providing each other with feedback throughout the various steps.

Term Paper on Instructional Design Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction Assignment

While the lesson plan does not state this explicitly, the teacher might present the stimulus by explaining the benefits of work with a partner, and providing students with guidelines on identifying main points and writing a summary. This step would depend upon the learners' existing level of knowledge. The point of this lesson appears to be exercising existing skills while learning the benefits of working with a partner, rather than learning new skills as such.

Learner guidance can be provided by guiding learners through the process of identifying main ideas and writing summaries while the groups are engaged in doing so. Because the lesson involves the students being active most of the time, the instructor can move between groups, check their progress, and provide guidance if and when needed.

The steps in the lesson plan appear, for the majority of the time, to incorporate eliciting performance from the students. From the beginning of the lesson, each step actively engages the students. Feedback, the seventh step, is also a very prominent feature of the lesson. Learners give continuous feedback throughout the stages of the lesson, with feedback from the instructor as the performance assessment stage.

The final stage, enhancing retention and transfer, is also incorporated throughout the lesson. Learners learn by teaching and learning from each other. The lesson appears to be based upon the premise that retention is enhanced by engaging students to provide their peers with feedback and stimulus. The instructor appears to play only a minimal role. This occurs repeatedly until the final stage when summaries are written and revised before handing them in to the instructor. In this way, each learner receives an equal amount of learning as well as the opportunity to learn by 'teaching'.

Part II

The ADDIE Model

Many instructors find the ADDIE model useful for its simplicity and ease of use (Malachowski, 2007). The acronym consists of the following steps in designing an instructional event:

The first step is to Analyze. This refers to both past and future lessons. The instructor analyzes the successes and/or failures of the previous lessons, as well as how specific students respond to specific methods. These are then incorporated in order to provide a basis for the design of future sessions, which is also the second step.

In Design, the instructor analyzes the subject matter to be addressed, plans the lesson, and selects the media to be used for the presentation. During the design process, the instructor needs to determine the objectives of the material presented; the skills, knowledge and attitude that students will acquire; resources and strategies; presentation and reinforcement; and finally feedback. These should directly integrate with learner needs as assessed during the analysis phase.

Thirdly, the model requires Development, which is a secondary analysis process. Learning experiences are created and tested to determine whether they are indeed effective in meeting students needs and whether they integrate accurately with the initial analysis.

Development is followed by Implementation, in which the learning experiences are presented to participants. The necessary media are used for the implementation phase.

The Evaluation phase also entails an analysis of what has been done. The presentations and responses in the classroom are carefully considered for their effectiveness. Any negative responses are recorded for the purpose of improving future instruction events. The findings are then used for an improvement to future presentations of the same materials, or applied to new materials for the same learner group.

Instructional Plan: Sociology

The instructional plan is created by Bryan Mallette, for the senior high school level. The specific topic is social change. It is assumed that the instructor has analyzed the needs of his students, as well as their level of understanding when designing the lesson. The lesson incorporates significant opportunities for discussion, as well as for exercising skills such as a high level of reading and writing.

The design of the lesson entails objectives such as identifying and discussing the main components of social change, as well as how these present themselves in modern society. The design is further developed by the addition of an anticipatory set, which entails a discussion of the Revolutionary War in order to demonstrate the need and manifestation of social change in certain circumstances.

In the implementation phase, the anticipatory set is followed by a division of the learners into three groups. The objectives of the group project are provided, and sections of responsibility are assigned to each group. Each group is then to complete their project within the assigned period, which is then followed by group presentations on the target date. On this day, each group is evaluated and graded according to a predetermined rubric.

In evaluating the Instructional Design, the level and subject matter appear appropriate for students at the senior high school level. One improvement that could be suggested is that the topic of the initial instruction be more contemporary in order to be more relevant to the learners themselves. Students can for example be asked for examples of social change on either a large or more minimal scale.

Part III

Consideration of Barriers

The Milken Exchange article addresses a number of barriers that teachers have found in implementing technology in their classrooms. These barriers mostly relate to issues of training and availability of the appropriate material, as well as the prices of technology.

The barrier that receives the most attention in the article is the one of teacher training in the use of digital technology and integrating this into their curriculum. According to the survey cited by the article, the majority of digital technology training that teachers receive is in basic skills, while curriculum integration receives less attention. It is not clear why curriculum integration should not receive an equal amount of training attention, as both types of training have been shown to be most effective in preparing teachers for their careers in digital-age instruction.

Another barrier is the sheer amount of information available. One side-effect of the information age is the fact that there is an overwhelming amount of information, and that not all of it is of optimal quality. Teachers find it difficult to invest the time necessary in order to incorporate the best possible software and Web sites in their teaching. Indeed, the information that is truly of good quality comprises just a small amount of what is available. A related problem is that the material found must also match the particular curriculum taught, which makes the process even more complicated and time consuming.

Another barrier is the number of computers available in classrooms. Classrooms with fewer computers will offer fewer opportunities for the use of digital technology, as shown by the cited survey. A related problems it he "digital divide," which is exacerbated by the gap between the rich and poor not only within the country's borders, but also worldwide. According to the article, from households earning less than $30,000 per year, only 20% of students have a computer at home, compared with households… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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