Term Paper: Instructional Design Models

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Instructional Design

Scrapbook of Instructional Design

Section 1 Instructional Design - Definition

Instructional Design is easily defined by its components - the design of instruction. It is the plan used to deliver knowledge. Since the first parent was presented with the challenge of rearing the next generation, humans have been involved in instructional design. How do we teach what we know to someone else?

The foundation of instructional design as a field of study became a significant issue during World War II when the U.S. military was faced with the challenge of rapidly training large numbers of soldiers to perform complex tasks. The problem was addressed by behavioral psychologists. One such theorist was B.F. Skinner and his research into operant conditioning. The military trained personnel by breaking tasks into simpler subtasks and each subtask taught individually.

In the 1950's high schools and colleges were run like manufacturing plants. Students entered the doors and freshmen, moved through the machine and graduated as adults ready to contribute to the success of the community. This "process" was challenged by the 1983 with the publication of "A Nation at Risk" and Theodore Sizer's Horace's Compromise the following year.

Both addressed the need to teach the upcoming generations in a manner that is both relevant and rigorous. A standard's movement swept across the country - even mandated from the Oval Office. Again the idea of Instructional Design moved to the top of political and educational agendas.

Today Instructional Design in defined four ways: as process, discipline, science and reality. Instructional Design as process looks at the systematic development of instructional practices. It is the analysis of learning needs and the creation of an effective process that will meet those needs.

Instructional Design as a discipline shows the need of training professional instructional designers. Most colleges of education across the country include one or more courses in Instructional Design. Monies and resources have been invested in the research and development of instructional processes and strategies.

Instructional Design is also considered a science. Universities along with public and private organizations have researched the development, implementation and evaluation of learning processes. A current example of research-based instruction practices is Marzano's Nine. The Art and Science of Teaching: a Comprehensive Framework or Effective Instruction presents a model that addresses the needs of individual students' strengths and weaknesses while balancing the necessity of research-based data.

The last is Instructional Design as reality. This definition allows the process to begin at any point in the educational process. Instructors can reflect on prior lessons taught and make adjustments. In this reflective practice, the "science" of Instructional Design can be incorporated.

Each of these definitions is not particularly exclusive. Each instead contributes to a distinct aspect of the role Instructional Design currently plays in American education. Our country is charges with the task of creating and educated society and workforce. Now competing in global economies where knowledge is king, American students require a world-class education now more than ever.

Section 2: Instructional Design Principles

In 1965 Robert Gagne presented the Nine Events of Instruction to help create the engaging, student-focused and relevant learning experiences. The nine principals can be categorized into three parts: pre-instructional, instruction, and post-instructional.

The pre-instructional phrase is about preparing the student for new learning. The purpose is to hook the students' attention, get them interested in the subject about to be presents and stimulate prior knowledge. The first three principles address these needs. Principle 1 suggests gaining students attention requires lessons begin intentionally. A question or conflict could be presented. The lesson could begin with a demonstration or experiment. Other forms of media or humor are also affective lesson openers.

Principle 2 requires learners understand the objective and the relevance in terms of future studies or real-world application. Principle 3 stimulates students' recall of prior knowledge. This prior knowledge serves as a foundation for the new learning and aids in retention and recall. Prior knowledge can be determines through a pre-test, asking students to share what they know about the topic or creating a concept map of prior knowledge.

The next four principles provide the bulk of instructional time. Principle 4 suggests that new information be presented in small chucks, with a variety of examples and non-examples using a range of media and methods. Principle 5 provides learner guidance. Instructors should help students understand the meta-cognitive process. Highlight the important ideas, provide learning strategies and use repetition.

Principle 6 suggests sessions be taught over time, eliciting student performance and provide role-play, case studies and simulations to get the point across. Principle 7 provides immediate, specific and corrective feedback with additional practice opportunities offered afterwards.

The last two principles address the post-instructional assessments. Principal 8 provides independent activities to assess student knowledge and skill acquisition. Lastly Principal Nine shows the application of learning in real-world sceneries and highlighting the connections between subject areas enhances the retention and transfer of knowledge.

The most difficult principle in application is Principle 6 - elicit student performance by allowing several practice sessions over a period of time. Time is often a teacher's worst enemy. On many occasions there just isn't time in the schedule to allow topics or objectives to be discussed over a period of days, or even weeks. A standard high school math text has more sections than school days when you consider non-teachable days - testing for example. If teachers are to cover the required content in the amount time expected, time is the commodity.

The issue of time is also present when choosing which experiences to offer. Knowing each student possesses different skills and modalities, individualized instruction requires several lessons. It is almost impossible to offer several lessons geared to a variety of the multiple intelligences - unless they happen simultaneously. Instructional centers seem to have been declared an educational fad of eras gone by. However, offering a menu of activities in which students can choose, each offer the experiences necessary for students to master the objective.

Section 3: Models of Instructional Design

Most models of instructional design differ in certain respect, all include three necessary components: analysis, design, and evaluation. Two such models are the ADDIE Model and the Dick & Carey Model.

The most commonly used ID model is the ADDIE Model (McGriff, 2000). Each of the five steps produces and outcome that feeds into the next step. The first phase is the analysis phase where the audience and expected outcomes are defines. The design phase develops measurable objectives and instructional strategies. The development phrase is choosing the materials to be used in the lesson. Implementation is the process of teaching and learning process - student data or product is produces. The last step is the evaluation of the process, determining the adequacy of the instruction. As seen in the flowchart, evaluation occurs throughout the process and at any point the instructional designer can go back to the previous page.

The Dick and Carey Model (Dempsey, 2006) includes nine steps to instructional design. First identify goals - these may often be already defined as state standards. The second step is to conduct instructional analysis and determine specific learning outcomes. Next identify entry behavior or determine what students already know. The instructors can then write performance objectives as statements of observable (measurable) behaviors. Choose strategies and select materials. This stage involves trying out and revising the use if different instructional strategies and resources. Next student performance is measured. Lastly evaluate student learning both formatively and summatively.

The models are very similar in process. Goals are established, lessons are designed and learning is evaluated. The differences occur in that the latter model breaks down the steps into more defined pieces. Dick & Carey's Stages 1-3 are combined into the Analysis step of the ADDIE Model for instance.

Other differences between the two models are the linear flow of D&C's model, where ADDIE represents interactive and flexible guidelines to instruction design. The D&C Model is more specific in outlining the necessary steps. The ADDIE Model combines many complex steps into just one phase making the process seem less multifarious than it truly is.

In either case, effective instructional design in an intricate process requiring planning, data-driven decision making and a bit of trial and error.

Section 4: Principles and Models of Instructional Design

According to Elena Qureshi's Web page on instructional design:

The Kemp (1994) design model takes a holistic approach to instructional design. Virtually all factors in the learning environment are taken into consideration including subject analysis, learner characteristics, learning objectives, teaching activities, resources (computers, books, etc.), support services and evaluation. The process is iterative and the design is subject to constant revision. The immediate feel of being iterative and inclusive, and particularly the fact that the central focus is the learner needs and goals are the strengths of this model. There is also a focus on content analysis, as there would be in any educational design and a focus on support and service, which is not present in other… [END OF PREVIEW]

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