Thesis: Integrate Evaluation Techniques

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[. . .] Once these aims have been identified, the next step would be divide the primary aims across the questionnaire in a way that not only interlinks the aims but also maintains a flow in the questionnaire structure. The next critical step would be the facilities as the facilities chosen will also set a standard and an image for the staff and the participants about the overall program. Also, it will be the first impression made, even before the questionnaires are distributed and first impressions are always important in instigating a fruitful questionnaire feedback.

The next important aspect would be to make sure that the questionnaires don't come across as biased or imposing. This simply means that any and all questions asked should not have an underlying purpose of furthering the evaluator's perception. The questions must be formatted so that they can ask a straight forward question and one that the respondent or participant will most likely find engaging and answer truthfully. Another important aspect is that the participants chosen must be given complete confidence that their answers will not be revealed. Perhaps the most important step to conquer would be mutual respect being established between the participants and the supporting staff. What this will simultaneously ensure is the existence of integrity and honesty in all answers given and thereof evaluated. Furthermore, mutual respect will also ensure that the impartialities from either side of the party are mostly eradicated.

4. Define formative evaluation. Discuss the four phases of formative evaluation. (Answer taken from PDF uploaded - Formative_Evaluation_PointPower)

Formative evaluation is basically assessing the cultural, behavioral and social patterns of the community at large. This will include numerous aspects like defining the program evaluation process first from the perception of the community so that one can understand what they are actually demanding when they require an evaluation. Furthermore, it is also important all the data collected is analyzed from the perspectives of the community i.e. not all information assessed and conclusions made will be deemed important and/or credible. So not all information can be released and any information released must be formatted in ways that will be acceptable to the community who demanded the evaluation or is practically engaged in a particular program. Hence, the reposting style and the facts being reported will both be equally important.

The four phases of formative evaluations are:

Identify the restrictions of the evaluation process

Recognize and implement the most suitable evaluation plan

Accumulate and assess all the data collected

Accurately report the results

The recognition of the restrictions of the evaluation process is important especially when conducting the formative evaluations. This is so because once the restrictions of an evaluation process are recognized, the overall data collected on community or social structure will be easily divided across the choices of programs available. This will make the choice of the suitable evaluation program less time-consuming and far more efficient.

The application of the most suitable evaluation process is extremely important. If the application is not correctly completed, the choice of the process will be viewed as a negative even it was the appropriate program chosen. Hence, here recognizing the appropriate plan will need to be followed by an additional step which will be the recognition of the process, keeping in mind the time and space restraints, which will be acceptable to the social order that already exists.

The data collection and reporting are also important procedures as they will determine whether or not the evaluation process will be accepted by the masses. The entire health education process is dependent upon the perception of those individuals who use the healthcare and health education services. If they do not perceive the evaluation and results attained to be applicable to their social structure, the entire exercise would have been in vain and the collaborators would end up losing some valuable credibility in the eyes of the community as well.

5. Describe (in detail) the five research designs commonly used in outcome evaluation; indicate the specific purpose of each. Provide a description of the shorthand used to document these procedures. (Answer taken from PDF uploaded - community_focused_evaluation_PowerPoint and Formative_Evaluation_PointPower)

Outcome evaluation is primarily focused on the questions and concerns of the sponsors, stockholder, investors and customers. All of the activities implemented in the outcome evaluation are all interlinked and related to one common established purpose. Outcome evaluation is an assessment that is based around an objective and goal using that as the basis to choose all evaluation tools and methods. The outcome evaluation process is based around five research designs which are explained below:

One group pre-test and post-test

Non-equivalent comparison group

Time series

Multiple time series

Random pre-test and post-test with a control group

The first research design is the group pre-test and post-test. This is where the practitioner chooses a sample size and gives them a situation before the implementation of a program. He then tests them wither through the survey format or direct questioning and observation. He records all these answers and then implements the program. He then uses the same method he used previously to collect all the answers again from the same group. He records these answers as well and then statistically compares them to the answers given in the pre-test. This particular aspect is great in terms of measuring the direct impact a program can make in the short or long-term. Of course care has to be taken that the sample chosen in not restricted but general so that the impact and results recorded can be expanded into the community and in different circumstances.

The second research design is the non-equivalent comparison group. It is important to note here that a comparison group is primarily concerned with the establishment of any and all differences formed when comparing two or more groups. The entire theory behind the non-equivalent comparison groups is that both the groups are chosen randomly with the belief that the randomization is based on similar aspects. This simply means that the sample may be chosen different from two similar classes where the students have similar traits however there is no guarantee that the two groups are actually equivalent in basic traits. Hence, the two groups might have differences from the very beginning even before the implementation of a new program is done. What this will result in is that the outcome evaluation will not give us accurate results as none of them will be viewed as appropriate once it is established that the groups had major differences from the very first stage. The problem with this approach is that it might show results that indicate impact made by the program implementation but we might ignore it because of the groups' unreliability. And, on the contrary, we might actually also end up recording results as authentic impact from the program when in reality the program didn't influence them.

Time series is basically the statistical recording of data and values of information that is collected over a period of time. The intervals between recording this information are always equal hence giving the recorded data, hence giving us a set if different values for the same variables at different times. This is a very useful method of accurately recording the implementation of each stage of a program. This is one method where the variables as well as the stage of the program that these variables are exposed to can be thoroughly controlled. This, in turn ensures that the objectives of the evaluation are filled and all mechanism chosen and results recorded fulfill the criteria that formed the basis of the evaluation.

Multiple time series is an extension methodology of the time series format. It is a data collection method whereby the compilation of specific mutually dependent time series information is used to determine forecasts of behaviors or explain the associations between different variables as well as give a detailed account of all the events that took place in a structured format. This allows them to accurately evaluate the different stages of the program and understand the exact stage that provides the strongest influence and impact on the behavior or community structure. This can also help identify the weakest link in the entire program.

Random pre-test and post-test with control groups is another research design used in outcome evaluation procedures. A control group is simply a group formed keeping in mind the original group formed, hence the subjects chosen in the control group are chosen based on the similarity of the demographics of the original group. This allows the practitioner to conduct comparisons over two different generations or eras to try and effectively identify the success of the programs being continued across time. It has to be noted here that creating a perfectly matched control group is not really possible and hence there will always be certain differences which will need to be taken into account when recording the final results and evaluations.

6. Describe three different methods of collecting data. For each method,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Integrate Evaluation Techniques.  (2011, September 4).  Retrieved June 26, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Integrate Evaluation Techniques."  4 September 2011.  Web.  26 June 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Integrate Evaluation Techniques."  September 4, 2011.  Accessed June 26, 2019.