Term Paper: Integrated Urban Port and Harbor

Pages: 10 (3032 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Transportation  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] Some filter-feeder organisms like mussels and crab may accumulate metal in their tissue and dangerous to harvest. When the water condition is deteriorating enough, it may disturb the local fish and other seafood product quality, risking safety to people's health.

This is why the environmental management needs to be strict in the plan from the very first time. EPA has filed the requirements of water assessments every periodical to provide latest data about the contamination status of the water area every time. EPA also put the ship categories into international standard to measure how the ship or boat could be a potential contaminant maker.

It is stated that if the marina operates mainly in boat rent, boat slips, boat storing, cleaning and repairing, then it is classified under the storm water program. They need to obtain water discharge permit as the category falls into SIC 4493.

The storm water discharge permit is required when the port is used for ship or boat rehabilitation, repairs, painting, fueling, all that involves the regarding pollutant materials. The operators should always make contact with the local EPA agency.

Whatever the size of the harbor and the activities involved in it, actually the ports need facilities to manage pollutants. The Port of San Francisco, for example, has documented several strategic plans to be environmentally friendly. The Hyde Street Harbor is equipped with several new functions to minimize environmental hazard. The harbor is equipped with bilge pump-out and sewage holding tank pump-out systems at the new berths and new fuel dock. Using this facility free of charge, boats will minimize their activity discharging bilge water into the harbor, instead it will be discharged to the City's sanitary sewer system.

The harbor also plans to install new used oil recycling station at. Used oil will be pumped "from vessel engines through double-walled piping to a double-walled tank on shore" to avoid spill and leakage. There is also "hard boom" and "soft boom" to contain adsorb spilled oil.

Another opportunity that the port may have in the development planning is the recreational use and green use, and it sure is very attractive to bring tourism industry in.

Leverburgh also has a plan to increase visitors coming to the area. Considering that it plays as an important role as the "southern gateway" - a strategic location with promising economics prospects. The ferry services and the terminals have attracted visitors year by year.

The Council finds importance to build appropriate parking places, to accommodate visitors who will have short trip for a while. The parking area is also designed to take bus, lorry, and bicycle.

With the fast growing tourism industry, Leverburgh has the potential to convert the port into one noteworthy site, as the good impression of Harris and Lewis islands. Vessel or ferry traffic should be the first priority, soon they will grow into a place full of cruise ships, leisure craft, and ferry passengers. The hoard of tourists there needs a central information boards to show them what facilities they would find there, including ferry schedule, places and event information. Some other basic needs like water and fuel will be stationed in the same site.

Strong statement about the facilities needs to be socialized. Facilities should be as strong giving the light to the historical and cultural aspects of the site. Visitors can interact with the nature, feeling the breeze of the beach, and getting field observation at the same time. Exactly those are what tourists want when they come to the seashore. As Nicholas said, the concentrated urban dwelling leaves no space for vegetation to establish. In here, port should consider planting some vegetation and allocate a part of the area to be a campsite.

However switching a harbor with communal function into a recreational function gives twice as much of the area sustainability. Tourism attracts and gives burden at the same time when a place is not well prepared to accept double function.

Harbors bring many functions in service to local and regional community needs, depends on the geographical locations and potentials it has to develop in the future. It is necessary to carry out a series of careful studies on site to examine what potentials the site has to be a harbor, how far it can be developed, and what is the sustainable status of the area foretelling the possible hazards on the surrounding waters and environment. For example, recreational boats may easily drop the water quality down in a short time.

The organic waste of the boat sewage for example, will deteriorate the water quality, lowering the dissolved oxygen (DO). When it comes to the peak of boating season, which happens to be in the same time as the water reaches the highest temperature by nature, it will increase the biological oxygen demand (BOD) which is dangerous to the living organisms in the water column and sediment.

Multiple goals must come from different perspective from all stakeholders in the area, but all should first be listed individually to examine the resources the community already has, to develop a functioning setting. When all seems to be equipped, it is important to see them together from the big picture.

The whole landscape is affected by the climate change in the harbor. Mostly neglected areas in the land use bear strong possibility to give the whole area a success. Plants and vegetation increase visual diversity and add the natural appearance around the buildings, making it a comfortable harbor to visit. Therefore, planning must be not only people (urban) oriented but also environmentally oriented Some potential environmental impacts that may arouse from the building process and another processes that may occur after a period of time:

According to EPA, siting and design are very important to find out how much impact the harbor activities on the water quality. Circulation and flushing of the water and the contaminants it brings with is affected by the stream circulation and wind direction.

The location of the marina will determine how pollutants will be transported. Pollutants travel differently as how the stream brings it. Each condition of the location - open waters (river, bay, barrier), semi-enclosed, or protected area or bay has the different character on the sediment, flush, and the power of the streams. Open area gets many influences from rivers, and the dynamic flux from the surrounding waters. Streams are more dynamic and faster from the influence of the prevailing winds, and make more rapid dilutions possible. Differences in salinity and pH determine how severe and how fast pollutants will show the hazardous effect to the environment.

In here, the final design of the marina will combine serial assessments and field study, counting every aspects of it: biology, physics and chemistry.

According to EPA, marina siting and correct design management measures will ensure how a marina influences the waters and organism. Port and harbor are also on the same position as this. The design should not cause risky water quality impact to the organisms, during and after the construction takes place. When the building process commences, it will plow the seashore and destroy the marine organisms habitat, which is difficult to recover.

Marina and harbor is a source of some hazardous pollutants into the water column, the sediment and the organisms living in the sediment and the water. According to EPA, pollutants can be the result of incoming flush from rivers and the surrounding waters, however the design of the port and facilities, the number and quality of operation and the site of the harbor will determine how much the water quality is polluted.

Construction can give both negative and positive effect towards organisms. The habitat, like the sediment-burrowing organisms, when destroyed may cause imbalance in the ecosystem that results in the overabundance of other organisms whose habitat is recreated by the construction support; for example fouling organisms. When in one side it is very good to attract fishes, it is also awful that those organisms settle on massive surfaces like ship and the construction, which is destructive to the wall itself.

The water circulation determines all process that will happen in the area, so it is necessary to find a good combination between services offered with the carrying capacity of the location itself, so that whatever development process is taken it brings minimal impact to the environment.


Leverburgh Waterfront Planning Brief. 2001. European and Development Services. http://www.w-isles.gov.uk/lever00.htm.(Apr1, 2002).

Management Measurement For Marina and Recreational Boating. 1997. Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. EPA-840-B-93-001c January 1993. http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter5/index.html.(Apr1, 2002)

Nicholas, Francis W. In Christian Charles M. And Harper, Robert A. 1982. Managing the Urban Physical Environment. Modern Metropolitan System. Charles E. Merrill Pub. Pp. 332-359.

Port of San Francisco Strategic Plan. http://sfgov.org/sfport/PortMissionFY01_02.pdf.(Apr1, 2002)

The Port of Houston Free Trading Zone. http://www.portofhouston.com/overview/ftz.htm (Apr1, 2002)

UCSG Life Saving and Fire Safety. http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/mse4/mse4home.htm (Apr1, 2002).


General Marine Safety Documents. http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/nmc/gendoc/gendocs.htm.(Apr1, 2002) [END OF PREVIEW]

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