Term Paper: Intermediate Sanctions

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Intermediate Sanctions

How Boot Camps were started and why they are important:

Boot camps have been brought to the arena of Intermediate sanctions in recent times. A boot camp is regarded a correctional system in consonance with military style in which the inmates are imparted with a highly organized and tough routine for training, along with the vocational and educational and curative programs. Initially this is launched to mend the first time adult offenders; boot camps are gradually used by several states to rehabilitate youthful offenders. The boot camps were initially introduced in Georgia in the year 1983. Such reformative approach is in consonance with public sentiment in support of harsher penalties for crimes, and a thought that kids who have perpetrated the crimes can be deterred out of continuance along a criminal path.

The Koch Crime Institute detects the significance for penalizing the youths for sending them to boot camps with a view to forbidding them to perpetrate further criminal acts by infusing fear, prevent juveniles from perpetrating further crimes by debilitating them, rehabilitate juveniles, penalize juveniles for the crimes they have already committed and attain any of them in a cost effective way. Rehabilitation and cost regulation are the most normal goals of states. Boot camps seem to involve fewer costs than the residential treatment facilities, partly due to the fact that the programs are normally of shorter duration, and also they necessitate less staff and mostly are located in rural areas. (Kilgore; Mede, 60)

Pros of Boot Camps:

multi-site quantitative analysis of boot camps conducted by Peters, Thomas and Zamberlan revealed that a considerable number of juvenile inmates entailed positive results in consequence to their association with the boot camps. (Benda, 75) Stringent regulations administer all facets of character and presentation. The personnel functions for training the Juveniles, formally, applying oral techniques devised to slash the resistance of the Juveniles and give rise to the positive variations. The Boot Camps were anticipated to positive variations by varying the intentions, values and activities of these Juveniles and also by dealing with the elements that enhance the probability of taking up crimes again including absence of employment, lack of control over negative behaviors. These camps were also anticipated to decrease the number of inmates by reducing the period of stay in jails. (Mathlas; Matthews, 323)

The inmates depicted improvement in their academic and employability skills, and many were capable of finding and continuing a job while in aftercare. At the beginning the social environment of the boot camp was forced upon the boys, however, gradually they are found to have bonds with one another and with the legion as a whole. Taking into consideration the aspects of their common experiences, this may not be amazing. All were deported to the boot camp for violating the law; most had had negative experiences with the schools, and most of them had low relationship with the adults in their lives. Such normal life experiences fetch them something upon that to build relationships and to develop an inclination of belongingness along with the entailing the basic assumption of the learning intended by the boot camps. (Kilgore; Mede, 62)

The adult counselors were engaged in boot camps who reside with the boys. The boys come across such positive adult role models while involving themselves in the daily life and in organized activities. They could learn how such adults respond to the conflict, the way they address with frustration, bring solutions to the problems, and interact with the others. Above all, the boys learned from their peers. They could know the way other boys respond when they are frustrated, the outcomes when they are not adhering to the institutional norms, and to the extent one requires to comply to become success in the institution. The boot camp thus makes them learn respect, self-respect, respect for others, and also respect for assets. The boot camp threatens the boys to deter from perpetrating future crimes and brings in a decline in the recidivism rates. The boot camp eradicates the capability of entry of the regulated substances and gang members. (Kilgore; Mede, 62)

This is to be made aware in the light of the fact that there are a number of teenagers those are involved in drug trading and drug usage that forces them to boot camps. The data from the 1995 surveys such as Household Survey on Drug Use and the Monitoring the Future Study reveals a significant increment in illicit drug use among young people in this country. The steady increase in the prevalence rates of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogen and methamphetamine application are of specific concern as a result of the aversive results linked with such drugs like addiction, crime, spread of sexually transmitted diseases or STDs, and death. Due to the high extent of youthful drug use and related problems, boot camps provide as a successful interference in declining the chances for the youngsters to re-enter the field. (Benda, 76)

The leaders also foster and are mostly confined to permit positive conversations to prevail. The boot camp organization also imparts training on self-discipline, motivation, and hard work. There exists no unused time at the boot camp. The long days are superiorly organized. This has been made clear the way they make their beds after waking up, what type of food they consume, when they should go to the bathroom, all their behaviors are determined and regulated by others. There exist no televisions, radios, stereos or video games. No time has been allotted for gossiping with their associates. Accounts of every day and every minute is maintained and completely regulated by the adult leaders. The intention behind such comprehensive schedule is to teach the boys that leading a highly organized life is the basis of success. (Kilgore; Mede, 62)

The studies conducted by Doris Layton Mac Kenzie revealed that the criminal behaviors of the offenders declined radically after detention and continued at this lower level throughout the probation period. When such offenders are involved in high-risk behaviors like carrying a gun, applying drugs, and heavy application of alcohol, they perpetrated many crimes. Contrary to this when they reside with spouses or were employed, they perpetrated fewer crimes. There was no variation in local life environments from the pre-arrest, arrest and probation durations. The reduction in criminal activities after arrest and during probation did not appear to be associated with variations in criminal activities after detention and during probation do not evidentially associated with the informal social regulations as quantified by local life circumstances. The consequences were represented as compatible to a positive correctional influence, i.e. boot camps. (MacKenzie; Li, 251)

In another analysis by Doris Layton Mac Kenzie and his associates, the responses from 2668 juveniles in 26 boot camps were analyzed comparatively with that of 1848 juveniles in 22 conventional facilities. The report indicated that there existed less variance between the worry of the juveniles and depression in such two types of facilities during their first month of confinement. However, with the passage of time, boot camps apparently considered as more beneficial. The analysis revealed that the juveniles in boot camps above all viewed their circumstances to become more positive for curative, less hostile or dangerous, and provision of more liberty. Comparing to others in the same facilities, youth who viewed their facility negatively practiced more stress i.e. anxiety, depression. Scales quantifying variations over time found that youth in boot camps became less disruptive and less dejected than youth in conventional facilities. (MacKenzie; Wilson; Armstrong; Gover, 302)

The prevalence of positive contact in one's life especially with one's parents is thought to be the most important element in deterring deviant behavior. However, most of the boys finished up in boot camp have not practiced such relationships, but instead have been abandoned and abused. They enter the boot camps with very little confidence with their abilities or necessity to establish relationships with adults. The camp fosters positive relationships between the boys, and at the minimum, their primary counselor. They attain a sense of their ability to generate and maintain such relationships that contributes to a developed sense of self-worth and the motivation to engage in other positive activities. (Kilgore; Mede, 64)

The peer culture can be regulated in a positive manner involving positive ideas and behaviors in boot camps. Before entry into the boot camp at Lakeview, none of the boys reported to have associated with the positive peer group. Instead they narrated friends with whom they engaged in drinking and drug addiction. To illustrate, Bubba revealed that his peers affected his own criminal activities. He revealed that he attempted to get out of the gang but they continue coming to fetch him back, offering marijuana or have devised some plans for the fun. While Bubba tried to avoid them he was alright but as soon as he hung around hem he had to return back being crazy. The boot camp eliminates the capability to access regulated substances and gang members. The leaders also foster… [END OF PREVIEW]

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