International Cooperative Healthcare Model Research Paper

Pages: 6 (2419 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Healthcare


Cross-Border Program:

The national program works in concert with the cross-border program on several substantial initiatives. Securing training for healthcare workers is a prime goal of both the national and the cross-border programs. International agreements will be forged with several major teaching hospitals in the U.S. that will provide training in local hospitals. Siting the training in the local hospitals ensures that healthcare workers will be trained to use available equipment and facilities, thereby speeding up the time between commencement of training and the on-the-ground placement of workers in local settings. A second primary goal of the international program is the treatment of patients with complex and acute medical status in U.S. hospitals where adequate treatment cannot be achieved in national facilities. This would include organ transplants, complicated surgeries that require specialists and facilities only available in the U.S. Or in cosmopolitan areas of highly developed countries.


The program will participate in international policy forums that focus on several initiatives:

Inspire creative thinking about health care policy at high levels in developed countries

Facilitate the sharing of healthcare and medical research among developed countries

Showcase policy innovation and practice international settings that are adoptable

Develop an international network of healthcare policy researchers and sponsoring organizations

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The relevance of adherence models to the experiences and lives of PL/HV has been determined to be one of the key markers of successful adherence intervention. As Ware explains, "Models developed for use in a specific sociocultural context cannot simply be assumed to be valid in another. They must be validated and, if necessary, adapted to fit the new settings in which they are applied" (2006: S19). Ware et al. (2006) developed a framework for evaluating whether existing models of adherence have cross-cultural validity. Commonly, barriers to treatment include difficulties with transportation, stock-outs of medication, poverty, and gender inequality, while supports might include treatment partners and access to extended family (Ware, et al., 2006). Assessment of adherence to antiretroviral therapy is emerging in resource-limited settings, but often the assessment strategies are have been developed in resource-rich settings (Oyugi, et al. (2004). Successful adherence assessments, such as structured self-report, 30-day visual analog scale, electronic medication monitoring, and unannounced monthly pill counts (Oyugi, et al., 2004) that require the assistance of in-home visits. The cooperative will employ empirically determined best practices such as focusing on patient psychology through counseling effort to improve the perceptions of PL/HA and to change their behavior. Annual patient care plans will be developed and shared across providers, both national and international, as appropriate, so that measures will occur across time that will facilitate communication.


International Cooperative Model. The proposed model relies predominantly on the ground-breaking work of PIH and USAID in Rwanda. Fundamental to the model in South Africa are three elements of reform: Performance-based financing, community-based health insurance, and quality assurance programs. These three components of healthcare reform, coupled with the political will to ensure implementation and sustained effort characterized by fidelity to the model, can result in high performing hospitals and centers. The Global Health Workforce Alliance has extensive reach in Africa and has developed models for capacity development, and on-site skill demonstration and training designed to enhance the transfer of skills.

Data integrity and coordination. While a centralized, web-based data system is important for coordination at the local level, it is essential for international cooperative arrangements. Medical records must be easily transferred and physicians must have opportunity to collaborate and discuss treatment history and plans. Open-source tele-consulting opportunities must become a foundational practice in an international cooperative healthcare initiative. These activities can be well-supported via the Internet, but an adequate technology infrastructure must be established or in place.

Performance-based financing. With its history of bureaucratized healthcare, South Africa is conditioned to expect healthcare funding independent of the efficacy of care patients receive. A robust performance-monitoring system can achieve the motivational reform essential to providing quality care in the facilities in South Africa, and can assist the South African healthcare system to achieve levels of performance that permit more or less seamless cooperation with its partners in the U.S.



A substantial number of within-country models for healthcare reform exist and models for international collaboration have also emerged. Increasingly, there is a focus on capacity-building and reliance on technology to accomplish -- virtually -- what cannot be accomplished in situ. The models that appear to be most effective have achieved high levels of support from the local government, and serve populations who recognize the need for external assistance, so levels of motivation and participation are high. The area of cooperative healthcare is evolving quickly, nourished by an increased awareness that disease does not respect national borders.


Battersby, M., Harvey, P., Mills, P.D., Kalucy, E., Pols, R.G., Frith, P.A., McDonald, P., Esterman, A., Tsourtos, G., Donato, R., Pearce, R., and McGowan, C. (2010, December 7). SA HealthPlus: A controlled trial of a statewide application of a generic model of chronic illness care, The Milbank Quarterly, 85(1), 37-67.

Davis, K. (2009, June 22). Cooperative Health Care: The Way Forward?, The Commonwealth Fund. [Blog]. Retrieved

International Health Co-operative Organization (IHCO), International Co-operative Alliance (ICA). (2011). [Web]. Retrieved

The Zambia Prevention, Care, and Treatment Partnership: A Model Program. (2008). U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Retrieved / etkgr3honbl4chb7p5mxtcbioozlrk2pmfxctmfcu2ozsmunapqkvxdblxk4wtme6ij7xpj3thdfik/ZPCTModelProgramReportHV1.pdf [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "International Cooperative Healthcare Model" Research Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

International Cooperative Healthcare Model.  (2011, June 30).  Retrieved July 9, 2020, from

MLA Format

"International Cooperative Healthcare Model."  30 June 2011.  Web.  9 July 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"International Cooperative Healthcare Model."  June 30, 2011.  Accessed July 9, 2020.