Essay: International Management the Cultural Tourism

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SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Advertisement and information may change, however, the ways that these tourists react (McKercher, 2002).

Message interpretation

The effectiveness of an advertisement policy is measured by the quotient of involvement aroused in a tourist that the policy induces. Message processing model in Richard Vaughn (1986) helps in understanding how a message can coincide with state of mind through the virtue of cultural orientation and expectation (Kantanen et al., 2006).

Commercial communication and information broadcast has been elaborately discussed by Vaughn forming a distinction and correlation between affective and cognitive nature of communication. According to him, there are four main marketing strategies: habitual, satisfaction, affective and informative. The theory proposes that marketing strategies require designing of variables differently in a high involvement product and a low involvement product while there ought to be difference of design when emotional involvement is required in comparison to logical one and vice versa. He also confirms the relationship between two marketing dimensions: involvement and affective vs. cognitive variables (Vaughn, 1986).

In case where decision making is entirely dependent upon the gained information, informative strategy is vital. Initially, cognitive information comes into play that stimulates decision of attraction or distraction depending upon concurrence with expectation (Hughes, 2002).

When the customer has the desired information about a class of products or services, decision making is determined by effectiveness of advertisement: the affective strategy. Similar cognitive behavior is displayed which ends up as final decision. Affective strategy allows use of environmental variables to induce an idea into the customer's mind. Therefore, a marketer becomes capable of controlling different stimulants in a customer's mind to provoke purchasing decisions. Focus on cultural orientation through prediction of customer can also help a marketer design a strategy which will not only create an affective image but also develop a sense of emotional relationship (Hughes, 2002).

The actual task of marketer starts with triggering the people and creating enough motivation to make people respond with high degree of concern by making a delving practice for which satisfaction or habitual approach is used. This was the situation marked by apathy from people with respect to few aspects of culture, in which affective or informative approaches do not seem to be of any use and the person himself can't create any linkage to the main content of attraction (LaBarbera et al., 1998).

Satisfaction approach is similar to habitual approach. In satisfaction approach instead of cognitive experiences, affective experiences are focused. Favorable and complacent affective reactions or feelings result in favorable judgment regarding the task and vice versa. The underlying concept of this approach is do-feel-learn. Habitual approach covers the practical aspect of personal engagement. The task itself and all the other supporting tasks attached to the main task results in judgment regarding involvement. Once the attention is grabbed the task itself retains the interest of the person by motivating him. Favorable judgment results in complacent clients who may pay repeated visits. The underlying concept of this approach is do-learn-feel as well (Kiasma, 2002 and 2005).

Differing aspects of message interpretation

Each cultural tourist differs from the other with respect to his/her motivation/concern and his/her proneness towards the cultural attraction according to the assertions made by McKcrcher (2002: 29). As a result of this, their response towards each marketing communication could not be generalized. The Foote, Cone and Belding (FCB) Grid is helpful in tracing these differences in their responses.

Each cultural tourist has his/her own taste that requires different expertise and each one may have unusual degrees of concern and motivation; following the same lead, it is safe to say that the reactions that each one entails to the communication medium may be entirely different from the rest as asserted by McKercher (2002).

Cultural tourists marked by high degree of engagement are categorized as purposeful cultural tourists. They are highly involved in learning the cultural linkages of the sight prior to visiting it. They are determined to experience culture in depth and to achieve a specific milestone. For them learn-feel-do is the best approach. As these tourists are possessive to the cultural outcomes, marketer must try to focus and direct efforts towards catching their sentiments initially. Then they would be motivated enough to process any information linked to the cultural sight. In this situation feel-learn-do approach is employed (Santasalo, 2003 and 2005).

Sightseeing cultural tourists are highly interested and motivated to achieve a specific cultural milestone and to experience culture but not in depth, contrary to the case of purposeful tourists. They are interested in collecting as much information as they can, related to the attraction and they react according to that. They do not go for in depth learning and for them learn-feel-do is the approach. So, the sightseeing cultural tourists usually join the purposeful tourists in some ways (Kantanen et al., 2006).

Incidental cultural tourists and casual cultural tourists are marked by low and moderate degrees of engagement with respect to cultural sites. Their primary will to travel is not based on visiting the cultural attractions but it is based on some other underlying motive. They do not seek in-depth cultural experiences. But still they can be motivated to see the attraction if proper approach is employed. The best suited approach for them is habitual i.e. do-learn-feel (Berli and Martin, 2003; also see Suomenlinna, 2002).

Casual cultural tourists do not have any interest in the destination and as such, have little involvement. This kind of a tourist has a preference for a good experience but if he/she were to be persuaded to attend, he/she can fully enjoy the culture object. We can assume that casual tourists follow the do-feel-learn model (Kantanen et al., 2006).

Conclusion

Cultural tourism, not to mention its marketing, is an intricate theoretical experience within which research can be conducted (Kantanen et al., 2006). There are several aspects that have to be discussed such as response and attitude towards the advertisement, motivation and need to visit attraction, various consumer behavior theories, customer appeals and advertising strategies. All of these factors have to be kept in mind when designing an advertisement targeting a certain lifestyle and behavioral market section (Santasalo, 2003 and 2005).

References

Beerli, A. And Martin, J.D. (2003) 'Tourists' characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: A quantitative analysis - a case study of Lanzarote, Spain'. Tourism Management, 25, 5, 623-626.

Craik, J. (1995) 'Are there cultural limits to tourism?' Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3, 87-98.

Herbert, D.T. (ed.) (1995) 'Heritage, Tourism and Society', Mansel, London.

Hughes, H.L. (2002) 'Culture and tourism: A framework for further analysis', Managing Leisure, 7, 3, 164-175.

Kantanen, Teuvo; Tikkanen, Irma. (Feb 2006). Advertising in low and high involvement cultural tourism attractions: Four cases. Tourism and Hospitality Research 6. 2: 99-110.

Kiasma (2002) 'Syyskuu-joulukuu'. Programme, September-December (Finnish).

Kiasma (2005) Customer Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 27.

LaBarbera, P.A., Weingard, P. And Yorkston, E.A. (1998) 'Matching the message to the mind: Advertising imagery and consumer processing styles'. Journal of Advertising Research, 38, September-October, pp. 29-43.

McKercher, B. (2002) 'Towards a classification of cultural tourists', International Journal of Tourism Research, 4, pp. 29-38.

McWilliams, E.G. And Crompton, J.L. (1997) 'An expanded framework for measuring the effectiveness of destination advertising', Tourism Management, 18, 3, 127-137.

Moore, D.J., Harris, W.D. And Chen, H.C. (1995) 'Affect intensity: An individual difference response to advertising appeals', Journal of Consumer Research, 22, September, pp. 154-164.

Peter, J. And Olson, Jerry C. (1987) 'Consumer Behavior. Marketing Strategy Perspectives', Irwin, Homewood, Ill.

Prentice, R. (2001) 'Experiential cultural tourism: Museums and the marketing of the new romanticism of evoked authenticity', Museum Management and Curatorship, 19, 1, 5-26.

Ruiz, S. And Sicilia, M. (2004) The impact of cognitive and/or affective processing styles on consumer response to advertising appeals', Journal of Business Research, 57, 6, 659-664.

Santasalo, T.K. (2003) 'Number of visitors to Finnish tourist attractions, 2002', MEK E:45, Finnish Tourist Board, Helsinki, Finland.

Santasalo, T.K. (2005) 'Number of visitors to Finnish tourist attractions, 2004', MEK E:49, Finnish Tourist Board, Helsinki, Finland.

Siegel, W. And Ziff-Levine, W. (1990) 'Evaluating tourism advertising campaigns: Conversion vs. advertising tracking studies', Journal of Travel Research,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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