International Planning Development Term Paper

Pages: 9 (2930 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 9  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: History - Asian


The country has focused its attention on infrastructure that will fuel its continued growth. China is currently constructing many transportation projects such as road and rail. The country is also undergoing major developments to provide the energy that will fuel the economy of the future. These include coal plants, hydroelectric plants, nuclear, as well as investing heavily in green energy. In fact, China leads the world in renewable energy investment which reached a record level in 2011 of over two hundred fifty billion dollars (Perkowski).

Education is another critical success factor for the country's sustainability and since 1998 China has tripled its share of GDP that it devotes to education (Zakaria). Furthermore, since that time the number of students has nearly quintupled going from one million in 1997 to over five and a half million in 2007 (Yu and Shailcross). This trend is continuing up until the present and Chinese have massively invested in their education system as an investment in the future of the country. Education is truly one of the cornerstones of a sustainable strategy since it represents the human capital potential for the population into the future. In China students from the Shanghai school system performed better than students in over sixty five different countries including the most economically developed parts of the world. China is currently trying to replicate this success for other regions of the enormous population that it possesses.

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Other efforts to maintain its sustainable development include natural resource acquisitions. China surprisingly has little quantities of natural resources domestically and therefore must acquire the needed raw materials for its manufacturing base from elsewhere in the world. Currently China is trying to form partnerships with African countries and businesses for the development of minerals and other important resources. The Export-Import Bank of China (China EXIM Bank), established in 1994, is a government policy bank that is exclusively overseen by the PRC State Council. It is the third largest export credit agency (ECA) in the world and has been a vital cog in the rapid expansion of Chinese global trade and investment (Davies).

China is also attempting to develop its rare earth resources which could serve as a key resource in the future. It is estimated that there are currently over six thousand researchers investigating this technology while there are only twenty from the United States by comparison (Jason). The Chinese government is also sponsoring various projects such as electric bicycles as a means to meet its transportation goals in the future. Currently there are over twenty six hundred electric bicycle manufactures in China and the output exceeds that of cars by nearly two to one (Jason).

Development Model Comparison

The buoyant transformation that China has experienced since its economic reforms were launched in late 1978 looks very different to the much more gradual developments seen in the many of the most developed countries of the world as well as the general East Asian development model. . Although many countries began their development with some level of central planning and none ended the period with a mixed economy in which many aspects of a command system that was still present. China is unique in this regard and the centralized power provides it many advantages as well as many obstacles and limitations.

When you compare China's development to other parts of the world it is easy to see how much power the government has. For example, the formation of the EU and Europe's development has had several issues because there is little authority in the EU financial sector to deal with some of the catastrophes that have emerged in countries like Greece, Spain, and Ireland. Recently this has been a hotly debated issue in the EU. Although the Finance Minister needs more power to act for its troubled member nations, many leaders do not feel the centralization of power is a feasible option and would lead to a loss of national identity (Kanter). Many feel that some of the issues found in Greece were related to a sense in which growth was inevitable without building sufficient infrastructure projects such as found in China (Sedlacek).

There are also many questions about China's future development path in regards to climate change and the emission of greenhouse gases. China is the world's biggest emitter of greenhouse gases as it has just surpassed the United States for this position. The Chinese are industrializing on a similar trajectory as the United States except an even more accelerated version. However, if China continues to develop under this path then it will have substantial negative implications for the Earth's climate. For example, in the period between 2000 and 2009 the Chinese tripled its coal production from 880 million tons to close to three billion tons (Scissors). Furthermore, China is also the world's largest importer of coal.

The continued development of the Chinese industrial base could be a problem in the future. Developed countries are trying to tell the developing world, especially China, that they must curb their greenhouse gas emissions. However, countries such as China and India have responded that they should have the same rights to develop their infrastructure in a similar manner as the U.S., EU, and the rest of the developed world. If China is forced to develop using sustainable technologies this would be vastly more expensive than meeting their energy demands with fossil fuels. Some argue that the developed world should pay for some of the development costs for developing countries to adopt clean energies since they emitted nearly all of the carbon that the atmosphere can absorb. Although China is currently the largest emitter, the United States has emitted a much larger historical amount of greenhouse gases throughout its development. Therefore, there is questions that arise in regards to the environment and China's future industrialization.


China is arguably the most interesting example of development in the world today, maybe even in history. The Chinese utilize a unique development model that contains a wide variety of practices from communism, socialism, as well as capitalism. This mix has produced one of the fastest growing economies that the world has ever known and if China maintains this course it will surpass the United States as the world's largest economy by 2020. Although China has a host of problems that it must still work through, the results that it has achieved thus far are staggering to say the least. One of the biggest challenges for future Chinese development will be developing along a sustainable path.

Furthermore, China is currently laying the ground work to maintain its push towards prosperity well into the future. China is currently building the infrastructure that will allow it to serve as the dominant economy in the future. It is also the world's leader in sustainable energy research and development which will serve as the cornerstone of future development for China as well as the rest of the world. Education investment has also been intensified significantly, especially since the late 1990s, to become one of the world's leaders as well. China has been able to achieve such long-term strategies because its government has maintained a considerable amount of centralized power. Although this has a range of problems associated with it as well, it has been the cornerstone of how the Chinese has reached such developmental milestones so quickly.

Works Cited

Davies, M. "HOW CHINA IS INFLUENCING AFRICA'S DEVELOPMENT." April 2010. OECD Development Centre. Web. 5 December 2012.

Jason, B. "China's Development Plans Lead World, BRICs." 10 January 2011. Global Sherpa. Web. 4 December 2012.

Kanter, J. "European Finance Ministers Deadlock on Plan to Oversee Banks." 4 December 2012. The New York Times. Web. 5 December 2012.

Orlik, T. "China's Inequality Gini Out of the Bottle." 17 September 2012. The Wall Street Jounal China. Web. 6 December 2012.

Perkowski, J. "China Leads The World In Renewable Energy Investment." 27 July 2012. Forbes. Web. 5 December 2012.

Scissors, D. "Climate Change Is Still About Chinese Coal." 28 November 2010. The Foundry. Web. 6 December 2012.

Sedlacek, T. "What is the magic formula for European growth?" 10 May 2012. Europe's World. Web. 5 December 2012.

The Economist Online. "An international report card." 7 December 2010. The Economist Online. Web. 5 December 2012.

-- . "World GDP." 26 June 2012. The Economist. Web. 4 December 2012.

Thomas, S. "China's Economic Development from 1860 to the Present: The Roles of Sovereignty and the Global… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "International Planning Development" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

International Planning Development.  (2012, December 6).  Retrieved January 18, 2022, from

MLA Format

"International Planning Development."  6 December 2012.  Web.  18 January 2022. <>.

Chicago Style

"International Planning Development."  December 6, 2012.  Accessed January 18, 2022.