International Politics Essay

Pages: 6 (1968 words)  ·  Style: Harvard  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Military

¶ … international politics, what do you consider to be the preeminent threats to "security?

The concept of security from an international relations perspective has changed tremendously compared to the end of the twentieth century. The threats to security have gone global just as the world entered into a new faze of globalization. The last century has brought the world new challenges such as world wars, the nuclear bomb, new and improved forms of genocide and a cold war between the two superpowers that arose after World War II.

If at the beginning of the cold war, only these two had nuclear weapons, by the end of the twentieth century any country or organization that could afford nuclear technology was able to get nuclear warheads on the black market. The nuclear threats in the international arena have gained a new dimension: that of nuclear terrorism. The transportation of merchandises, people and information has become so affordable that virtually anyone can get in touch with anyone in the world in the shortest time possible. In spite of the fact that computers, broad band connections and optic cable, satellites and GPS devices have made people's lives easier and more complex, they also have enabled terrorists to communicate and use the huge amount of flow of information ready to use by the touch of a button.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Essay on International Politics, What Do You Consider to Assignment

Every advance in the civilization of humanity that has been made thanks to science and technology had its downside that comes along with the benefits. Developed countries have made possible for their citizens to afford things that were once unconceivable for the masses, thanks to mass production and globalization. Yet, there are poor developed countries that are still struggling with famine and epidemics. The internet and the computers that are now available for a fraction of the price they used to have at the beginning of the computerized era are as common as the TV set in every household. The wireless connection and technology have made it possible for anyone who has a computer to get connected almost instantly to the World Wide Web. Yet, there are countries that are still fighting high rates of illiteracy with two thirds of the total illiterate world population being women.

The new challenges faced by the world population menaced by the global warming are gathered under another chapter of security threats. Globalization has made cooperation possible for countries as well as for people. On the other side, globalization and the threats to security in the context of modern international relations has made efforts to reduce these successful only in the case of international cooperation. Global warming, terrorism, international piracy, ethnic and regional conflicts, cultural preservation and bad immigration policies, new viruses that threaten to spread quickly and improve constantly when faced with newly developed vaccines are preeminent security threats. Hunger and food security, scarcity of fresh water for entire regions of the globe, low levels of literacy among entire populations are gathered in a category of enablers for all these.

Immigration has become an issue that rises more and more often in the discussions between politicians from developed countries. Cheap labor seems to have been to key of success ever since the first wave of immigrants has moved to more developed countries. No longer than five years ago, entire regions of Paris were witnessing riots started by the Arab population in response to a police incident that led to the death of a three young Maghrebins.

The third era of Globalization that began, according to Thomas L. Fridman in 2000, has made the world shrink furthermore, from a small size to tiny (Friedman, 2006). Even if continents came together, flattening the world again, cultural diversity remained a source of development as well as a threat for societies. Germany is the first example of a developed country that massively imported labor from Turkey in the 1960s to only discover later that families who started to make a life of their own on German soil needed well thought policies of integration in the spirit of cultural preservation. These new workers who were bringing up their children in German schools and were slowly starting to adjust to the German life society needed financial as well as cultural protection from their German employers and from the state. Although it still has its flaws and it is far from the ideal situation, Germany has adopted measures destined to reestablish the balance between the old way of living and the new problems that arose once the government approved new contingencies of foreign workers. In the case of new policies implemented by the German government and the NGOs alike, in their coordinated efforts to integrate the new population with its cultural identity and ethnic specificity: "recent changes in German law that will make it easier for Turkish residents to obtain citizenship illustrate how economic globalization has affected the way in which states view acceptable cultural diversity. In this example, Germany is becoming more inclusive of cultural differences in its idea about citizenship and belonging, a phenomenon that is happening in many parts of the world" (World at Risk. A Global Issues Sourcebook CQ Press, p.71).

When it cam to the same situation with immigrant workers and the treatment they were receiving in other parts of Western Europe as compared to the rest of the population, it seems that France was taken by surprise, too. Cathy Lisa Schneider writes an article about the "riots that consumed Paris and much of France for three consecutive weeks in November 2005." In 2005, the Maghrebins and the rest of the immigrant workers of African descent population got a response from the French government in 2005 that proved a shocking point: "many young blacks and Arabs already believed: that their lives have no value in France" (Schneider, 2008). Developed western countries such as Germany and France could not ignore the problem of immigrant workers and since they could not live without them, they had to come up with new policies and solutions so that incidents that led to riots in their capital cities would loose their chances to happen again. The two examples are mere reminders that the issues of cultural identity in the context of ethnic belonging are far from being solved and even countries like the U.S. that are expressions of a nation built on cultural differences are not spared these issues. The case of Mexican immigrant workers is among the first that come to mind.

Another issue that stands among the preeminent security threats is that of arms control. That issue has several ramifications. When it comes to nuclear arms, although regulated and controlled under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), that entered into force in 1970 (the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, 2007), the arms race is far from being solved as a security problem in international relations. According to the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, the situation in the case of countries that pose nuclear weapons has gained new aspects: "insufficient protections against the theft or sale of various nuclear materials in states of the former Soviet Union; nuclear black market activity such as the network operated by a.Q. Khan out of Pakistan; threats by North Korea to share nuclear technology with states or non-state actors hostile to the U.S.; and, most recently, violations of IAEA nuclear safeguard standards by Iran, a signatory of the NPT which is pursuing technology for producing nuclear materials as part of a possible quest for a nuclear bomb" (the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, 2007).

On top of this, there is the threat of terrorism networks that might gain access to weapons of mass destruction. Nuclear technology that allows countries to provide energy to their population can unfortunately be transformed into weapon production technology and the NPT already considers adjusting its sanctions and conditions so that countries that may leave the treaty or easily change their peaceful nuclear technologies into war making ones can be better controlled and convinced to undertake disarmament measures that really reduce the security threats. Modern politics have become essential in the play between those who declared their nuclear weapons capabilities and those who are most likely to have them, but did not come forward in this matter.

Ethnic and regional conflicts are also under the influence of those who are financing arms races and the countries that support one side or another can easily get involved in a larger conflict. According to Murat Somer, another downside of the globalization phenomenon is that it: "threatens the stability of nations and nation-states, which continue to be key players in the global economy and politics. Globalization, which depends on the cooperation of nation-states to thrive, affects ethnic and regional conflicts in competing ways" (World at Risk. A Global Issues Sourcebook, 2002, p. 173).

Ethnic and regional conflicts are never to remain regional in the new order of international politics. Neighboring countries and their allies will always be forced to take sides and diplomacy… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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