Essay: Inverted U. Hypothesis

Pages: 5 (1647 words)  ·  Style: Harvard  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] A study conducted comparing athletes participants competing in sports teams (basket ball) with athletes competing in track and field (individual sports) revealed that athletes competing in track and field sports report significantly increased somatic anxiety and reduced self-confidence that athletes in team sports.

In addition, some researchers suggest that genders differences also affect the relationship between self-confidence, somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety, for instance research reveals that the females had higher somatic anxiety and lower self-confidence scores than males in athletics sport. Similarly, another research revealed that adolescents, irrespective of gender, experienced higher somatic and cognitive anxiety levels and lowers self-confidence level as their opponents ability increased.

In his study Reeve (2008, p56) established that among the males, somatic and cognitive anxiety level was more strongly influenced by their perception of the ability of the opponent and the probability of winning. While female self-confidence and cognitive anxiety are determined by the significant they place on success and their readiness to perform,(


Clearly, inverted U. hypothesis exerts differs on athletic performance. Such impacts vary based on gender, level of experience and sports. Also, in order to facilitate optimal performance by athletic participants, sport psychologists should consider the principle aspects of anxiety such as somatic anxiety, self-confidence and cognitive anxiety.


Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.

Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.

Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.

Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.

Vestman, M., & Eden, D. (1992). The Inverted-U relationship between stress and performance: is it time to retire An overworked… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Inverted U. Hypothesis.  (2012, June 14).  Retrieved August 17, 2019, from

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