Essay: Ionic and Covalent Bonds Chemical

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Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Chemical bonds are formed when there is an attraction between atoms that allows chemical substances containing more than two atoms form. The two forms of chemical bonding are ionic bonding and covalent bonding. Furthermore, ionic bonds and covalent bonds can be combined to form mixtures and compounds.

Ionic and covalent bonds form when two or more elements are bonded together. Elements are pure substances that are comprised of one atom. The elements can be found on the periodic table, arranged by their atomic number. There are 117 elements that have been discovered to date; 94 of these elements are found to be naturally occurring while the remaining 22 elements are artificial. Substances that are formed by ionic and covalent bonds can be further combined to form mixtures and/or compounds. A mixture is a heterogeneous form of matter composed of varying proportions of molecules and atoms. A mixture can be any combination of substances. These substances that comprise a mixture keep their individual and characteristic properties; these substances can be easily separated from the mixture. Separation of these substances can be achieved through dialysis, chromatography, or electrophoresis. Dialysis is the separation of molecules in a solution in which the molecules diffuse through a semi-permeable membrane. Chromatography separates molecules based upon differing partitioning behaviors that occur between a mobile and stationary phase. Electrophoresis separates substances based upon the rate of their movement in a colloidal suspension when introduced to an electric field (Decelles, 2001).

Compounds are pure substances that are made up of two or more elements. Whereas a mixture is a heterogeneous form of matter, a compound is a homogeneous form of matter where the elements are present in fixed proportions. The elements that make up a compound do not retain their individual properties and large amounts of energy are required to separate a compound into its separate parts. Compounds are naturally formed to provide elemental stability. This stability is dependent on the number of electrons found in the outermost energy level of an atom.

Ionic bonds are formed when atoms link together because of the attraction of ions that have opposing charges. Ionic bonding requires that electrons completely transfer from one of the bonding atoms to the other. Electrostatic forces allow for these electrons to be attracted to each other. When an atom loses an electron, this atom will reduce in size. Inversely, when an atom gains an electron, the receiving atom will grow in… [END OF PREVIEW]

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