Term Paper: Iran God Has Planted in Every Human

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¶ … Iran

"God has planted in every human heart the desire to live in freedom'- the belief of President Bush made it clear the American perspective of devising a strategy for democracy in the Middle East confronting the obstacles of reform, the allies of terror along with anticipation of high standards from our parents. (Iran: Solidarity with Iran) The promotion of democracy has become a leading premise behind the declared U.S. policy in Middle East. Thomas Carothers, director of the Carnegie Endowment Program of Law and Democracy, in his publication Critical Mission: Essays on Democracy Promotion, puts forth that 'The project has a strong background. There is a strong line of continuity in the post-cold War period.' He pointed out that United States promotes democracy only where it appears to be compatible with the U.S. security and economic interests. And at the moment it is in conflict with other significant interests it is degraded and even ignored. (Promoting democracy in Middle East)

Democracy is comparatively a new system of government. Till the inception of 18th century the democracy was rarely in existence except in some Greek City states only partially existed 2400 years ago. The founder of Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great promoted the concept of liberties in the traditional world that incorporates the full religious freedom. The growth of Christianity in the 3rd century Roman Empire condemned religious tolerance for non-Christians and dissident Christian groups. Most of the dissident Christians had to take shelter in tolerant Persia so as to avoid persecution. The growth of democracy was originated with the process of Enlightenment and the dejection of the absolutist ideology and monarchies in Europe during the past three centuries. The democracy and freedom necessitates many things. A system of government whereby the citizens freely and periodically elect the leaders is of great importance. The greater is the existence of the un-elected political organizations in a system the greater the system is un-democratic. (Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran)

The liberal democracy indicates to a system that signifies voting by people for free elections to fill the top administrative ranks in legislative and executive branches, while the rights of those holding a minority perspective is safeguarded. Mores, ethos and other values among the population are quite prevalent for enduring democracy and freedom. In some cases the democratic set up has been established but the democratic system failed to establish itself. One of the element which functions as a basis for the rise and consolidation of democracy is the link between the people and the leadership which can be perceived in two respects of absolutism and pluralism. The absolutist concept is associated with the blind adherence to the related utilization of force to suppress those who disagree. The pluralist concept is associated with the human reason, relativity of truth and the agreeable diversity of perspectives. The absolutist ethos and culture makes the people socialized to blindly follow the leadership.

The governance of Europe and Middle East has been much influenced by the basis of the blind obedience for the past 2000 years. The inherent idea behind it is the fact that individuals confront situations that individual fail to understand fully. They in such situations are required to blindly follow those having authority backed by religious and political levels. The authoritarian leaders required their supporters to blindly obey them. In Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah, Ruhollah Khomeini, Ali khamanehi and Masoud Rajavi made their supporters to obey them blindly and not to challenge their authority. The slogan of Khomeini's supporters was: "Hezb Faghat Hezbollah, Rahbar Faghat Ruhollah" implying the Sole party is Hezbollah the Sole Leader is Ruhollah and the slogan of the supporters of Rajavi was: "Iran Rajavi, Rajavi Iran." Mohammad Reza Shah designated himself as the Shadow of God on Earth and declared that he frequently received messages from the Hidden Shia Imam and his life was saved several times by the Shia Imams. The ideology of Khomeini was based on the 'Velyat Fghih'-the sovereignty of the Shia Clerics - with the argument that God has created everything and is sovereign over everything. God delegated his sovereignty to the Prophet Mohammad, after him to the Shia imams and while there was the absence of the 12th Imam; Sovereignty was applied by the Shia clerics. (Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran)

Serious challenges have been confronted by the efforts for promotion of democracy in Iran and its subsidiaries like political pluralism, regular elections, peaceful transition of power, and division of powers always confronted with serious obstacles both nationally as well as internationally. As the domestic obstacles like underdeveloped political culture, is quite well-known and become the subject of the extensive controversy, the external problems or impediments are either ignored or sometimes confined to the intervention of great powers and the like, giving rise to the poor notion or understanding of the regional difficulties or hindrances to Iranian democracy. While the Middle East country is sandwiched between the two sub-regions of Persian Gulf and Central/Northwest Asia, Iran is unavoidably influenced by the regional environment for its home developed democracy. (Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran)

Negligence to such facts will give rise to the organic connection between the internal and external dynamics operating for or against the process of Iranian democracy. Currently, the regional dynamics, unluckily, are quite adverse to the organic growth of democracy in Iran. To illustrate, most of the neighboring countries have predetermined negative role models adversely affecting the so-called democratization process inside Iran. In both the sides there exists nation's majority of which are completely undemocratic or mostly administered by unbalanced democracies. Unavoidably, such countries generate reference societies for Iran and in consequence formulate so many impediments to Iranian democracy that is required to be dealt in by the protagonists of democracy and pluralism in Iran. (Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran)

The movement to freedom and democracy in Iran necessitates drifting away from blind obedience and from those who associate with the un-elected leaders like, IRI, monarchy, PMOI. So as to promote freedom and democracy several pre-conditions are required. It is necessary to have separation of religion and state. Besides, it is required to make the individuals socialize so as to devise independent critical thinking skills, and deter from blind obedience and we are required to initiate practicing pluralism and tolerance and skepticism. It has been perceived that so as to develop Iran into a free democratic, modern and economically prosperous the ethos of blind obedience has to be replaced with the ethos of critical free deliberation. (Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran)

Kansas Senator Sam Brownback attempted to introduce a bill, the Iranian Democracy Act, in the U.S. Congress demanding the fifty million dollars for promotion of democracy in Iran and to provide funds for Iranian opposition groups. Brownback revealed that the Iran Democracy Acts has the objective of enabling Iranians searching to generate democratic, secular government that regards human rights, rejects state sponsored terrorism and condemns the possession and application of weapons of mass destruction. The Bill authorizes for sanction of funds for pro-democracy broadcasting to Iran and enhances the advice and influence of Iranian - Americans in the U.S. Persian radio service, Radio Farda. The strategy for promoting democracy is explained by Brownback as proceeding through the problematic job of instituting an open society in Iraq and attacking the terrorist networks around the world. (Senator Brown Back Announces Iran Democracy Act with Iranian Exiles)

It is pertinent to make the American policymakers aware about the role Iran is exerting in the region. He also explains the true stability can never be there so long as the Iranian regime is in power. Senator John Cornyn of Texas opined that a survey by the Terance Group revealed the support of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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