Job Analysis Process Case Study

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Job Analysis Process

Job analysis is an intricate process through which the human resources department is able to maintain the right number of employees who produce the right quality. It also helps them to measure the performance of their employees based on standards that are realistic and to assess the outcomes of training strategies. Through job analysis, the human resources department is also able to understand the development needs of their employees and provide these towards their increased productivity. As defined by Dessler, Griffilhs, and Lloyd-Walker (2007)

, a job analysis is a systematic process through which the responsibilities, duties, skills, work environment, accountabilities, and ability of a specific job are explored in order to control the output of employees.

Purpose of job analysis

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There are several reasons why an organization would conduct a job analysis. The first is that it helps the human resource managers to determine the success of a particular person in an unbiased and thorough manner. This is because they are able to recruit the right people for the job by establishing a person-task fit. Secondly, it helps the human resource managers to decide the best compensation package and other additional benefits and incentives related to the job. This is because they are able to understand the demands of the position and the qualifications and experience of the person required to fill the position. In this way, they are able to establish a matching compensation package that is competitive and keeps employees motivated and satisfied Muchinsky, 2011()

The job analysis also serves the purpose of training and development. Since the job analysis can be used to assess the development or training needs of the employees, the organization is able to understand how training affects the expected and actual output levels. Lastly, job analysis helps in designing and redesigning of jobs since it enables the human resources department to understand the work load and other aspects of the job such as supervision and interaction thus know how to design or redesign the job Nel et al., 2012()

Case Study on Job Analysis Process Job Analysis Is an Assignment

Job analysis process

The job analysis process consists of 6 steps. The first is the identification of the purpose of the job analysis. By understanding why the job analysis is needed, it is possible to determine who is best fit to conduct the job analysis e.g. whether internally by the human resources department or an external consultant and the strategies that will be used to prove that the analysis is unbiased and thorough. The second step is creating a plan for the analysis. This is done by creating an approach through which the whole process is conducted. The third step is strategic decision-making where the management decides the extent to which employees are involved in the process as well as the details that will be collected and analyzed. In this step, the management also trains the person to conduct the job analysis to understand the purpose and requirements as well as informs the employee(s) regarding the job analysis. The next step is data collection whereby the analyst collects relevant data such as educational qualifications, working conditions, duties, employee behavior and other data. This data is then documented, verified and reviewed in the next step. The next step is the development of the job description and specification based on the data collected after which the job descriptions and specifications are updated and maintained based on the new information Nel et al., 2012()

Methods of conducting job analysis

There are three main methods through which job analyses are conducted. The management may choose to use one method or a combination of any two or more methods based on the needs of the organization, objectives and purpose of the analysis. Typically, all three methods are used hand in many organizations. This is because they offer different channels of collecting relevant information and they have proven over the years as the best tools for creating a perfect person-task fit.

Other factors that influence the choice of method of job analysis include the organizational structure, nature of job, responsibilities and duties of the employee and the hierarchical level within the organization. Therefore, before choosing the method, the advantages and disadvantages are analyzed and basic data collected which helps in improving the process.

Observation method

The observation method is one through which the person conducting the job analysis observes the employee as they perform their day-to-day work and keeps detail records of all tasks performed and those not performed. It may also involve matching the job description of the employee to the actual responsibilities and duties, skills and experience. It helps greatly in understanding the physical, psychological and emotional ability of the employee to handle challenges and mitigate risks.

Though the observation method seems like an easy method, it has several challenges. The major challenge is the Hawthorne effect where the person may act differently when they know they are being watched. Therefore the employees may act in a close-to-perfect manner which is not close to the actual day-to-day happenings in the organization. A second challenge is that it is difficult to standardize observation which may introduce personal bias since each person has their own way of looking and interpreting actions.

Despite these challenges, observation may is an effective method of conducting job analysis and is conducted using three techniques. The first is direct observation. This is where the person conducting the analysis observes and records the behavior of the employee. The second technique is Work Methods Analysis and involves studying the time and type of work done such as manual or repetitive work. The third technique is the critical incidence technique whereby the job analyst identifies the specific work behaviors that result in exemplary performance.

In conducting a job analysis for a member of the senior management in an organization, the observation method may prove beneficial. It would involve the job analyst sitting in the manager's office and observing how the manager undergoes their day-to-day activities. During certain meetings, the job analyst may also sit in to observe how the manager conducts them and the interaction with other employees. The job analyst will also observe the amount of time the manager spends on certain tasks such as meetings, approving documents and other activities. The job analyst will also use the critical incident technique to understand what leads up to the incidence that improves their performance and how effective the incident was. The analyst will also judge the amount of control that the employee has on the incident in order to understand accurately how the incident influenced the behavior.

Interview method

This method involves interviewing the employee in order to understand how they use their skills and techniques in performing the tasks associated with their job. It also helps the analyst to understand the work environment, insecurities and grievances which the employees may have. This particular method is tricky since it requires an honest and confidentiality relationship to be made between the employee and the analyst in order to elicit sufficient feedback and genuine data which is helpful for the organization. Creating this relationship will be tricky since the employees will not want to engage in anything that may harm their employment. The best way is to conduct several interviews in order to identify a number of findings that can be generalized for the whole organization rather than for specific jobs.

In the case of a job analysis of a senior manager, the manager will be interviewed regarding how they find the work environment to be, their thoughts on their workload and how their employees help in ensuring the success of the organization. The manager may also be interviewed on the feedback channels available to the organization's top management and for the employees. Other information can also be sought in the interview such as job satisfaction.

Questionnaire method

This method involves getting a number of questionnaires filled out confidentially by employees and other members of the organization such as senior management. This method also has personal bias as a challenge since the employee or manager may decide to give dishonest information. Therefore the questions should be framed in the best possible way to ensure employees do not feel like the responses given in the questionnaires will be used negatively.

The questionnaire method can also be used in the job analysis process of the senior manager. It would involve preparing a questionnaire to gather all required information regarding the senior manager's duties and responsibilities in the organization. Information regarding the skills and abilities of the senior manager may also be collected.

Other methods

There are other methods that can be used to conduct job analyses. One is the repertory grid technique through which the experience of an employee while in the organization is interpreted in a smart manner. Typically this involves coming up with a topic of the person's experience which may include interactions with other employees, work environment, etc. after which a set of elements is identified such as friendliness, professionalism, hierarchy. These elements are then… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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