Kinesthetic Learners Achievement Levels Term Paper

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As of 1999, almost ninety percent of schools had Internet access and that number is expected to increase to one-hundred percent (Center for Information Technology and Health Research). Over thirty million American elementary school children had computers in the home in 2002 (U.S. Census Bureau). This number is expected to continue to increase over the next few years. There are a number of well-known research studies that demonstrate the positive effects of computer technologies on learning such as The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project, the Collaborative Visualization (CoVis) Project, the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow Project, the SchoolNet / Rescol Report, the American Culture in Context: Enrichment for Secondary Schools (ACCESS) project, Lehrer HyperAuthor study, the Highly Interactive Computing Environments (HI-CE) research and the Lego/Logo project.

4.3.1 The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project

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The Challenge 2000 Multimedia project conducted from 1995 to 2001 involved collaboration between Joint Venture: Silicon Valley, a partnership of area businesses focused on improving the quality of life in Silicon Valley, and the San Mateo County Office of Education. The study was funded by a U.S. Department of Education Technology Innovation Challenge Grant. The project studied changes in classroom processes in project-based classrooms using multimedia technology. The project's aim was to engage students in their own learning and develop student's skills of collaboration, decision making and complex problem solving. SRI International conducted a five-year evaluation of the implementation and outcomes of the project. This company's sample studies included 6th and 7th grade classrooms and included twelve multimedia and nine comparison classrooms.

Term Paper on Kinesthetic Learners Achievement Levels in Assignment

SRI found that multimedia project classrooms were more likely to be focused on longer-term projects that spanned a week or more, learner-centered, collaborative, and oriented toward people and communities outside the classroom than were comparison classrooms. An analysis of students' actions revealed that they were engaged in complex, cognitively challenging tasks in multimedia project classrooms. Students were engaged in more "cognitive activities of design" such as deciding on the structure of a presentation; creating multiple representations, models, and analogies; arguing about or evaluating information; thinking about one's audience; and revising or editing work.

In multimedia project classrooms, teachers spent more time having students practice skills on their own with strategic assistance provided by teachers as needed, than having students watch or listen as teachers performed a task for them or explained a process to them. Data revealed that multimedia project teachers were more likely to give major responsibility to students for their own learning than were comparison teachers. Teachers in multimedia project classrooms were more likely to be engaged in assisting or helping students by moving about the classroom and responding to student questions or providing help when they saw a need for it.

Students in multimedia project classrooms were more like to spend time engaged in small group collaboration than were comparison students. In contrast, comparison classrooms were much more likely to be observed as having a lecture-oriented discourse dominate classroom time. Students in project classrooms were also more involved in taking advantage of external resources. For example, students in project classrooms spent half of the time observed using the Internet, searching for information, graphics, pictures, sounds, and other material to use for their multimedia presentations. The Internet was not used at all in comparison classrooms. Thirty-five percent of the activities in project classroom involved students considering the audience of their work, whereas none of the activities observed in comparison classrooms found students attending to the audience of their work beyond the teacher.

SRI concluded that the Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project met its objective of transforming classroom processes so that they became more student-centered.

They found that multimedia project classrooms were more likely to be learner-centered and engage students in long-term, complex assignments.

4.3.2 Collaborative Visualization (CoVis) Project

In 1996, the National Science Foundation program in Networking Infrastructure for Education sponsored a study to explore the issues of scaling, diversity and sustainability as they related to the use of networking technologies to enable high school students to work in collaboration with remote students, teachers and scientists. Participating students studied atmospheric and environmental sciences using scientific visualization software, video teleconferencing and collaborative computing. Research results indicated that students spent their time productively, preferred CoVis activities over traditional science labs, and learned both content and scientific inquiry skills.

4.3.3 Apple Classroom of Tomorrow Project

In 1985, Apple Computer, Inc. began its Apple Classroom of Tomorrow (ACOT) Project, a ten-year collaboration with several widely-separated school districts around the United States. Apple gave students and teachers computers and software for both school and home use, and research. ACOT classrooms also had access to videodisc players, video cameras, scanners, CD-ROM drives, modems, and online communications services. The research program focused on answering six major questions:

What kinds of collaborative environments and tools are most helpful in inquiry-based classrooms?

2. What happens when teachers and students have access to rich online resources and remote experts?

3. How can the computer's power to represent knowledge in multiple media support learning?

4. How can the computer be used to support students in problem-solving?

5. What happens to motivation and learning when students have the same access to the sophisticated tools that experts use?

6. How can the learning and competencies accomplished in a technology-rich environment be assessed?

Coley summarized the impact of ACOT students as follows:

Explored and represented information dynamically and in many forms

Became socially aware and more confident

Communicated effectively about complex processes

Used technology routinely and appropriately

Became independent learners and self-starters

Knew their areas of expertise and shared that expertise spontaneously

Worked well collaboratively

Developed a positive orientation to the future

4.3.4 American Culture in Context: Enrichment for Secondary Schools


The American Culture in Context: Enrichment for Secondary Schools (ACCESS) Project (Spoehr, 1994; Spoehr & Shapiro, 1991) focused on teaching United States history, American literature, and American studies in high school. For this project, teachers assembled a hypermedia collection of textual, pictorial, audio and video materials to supplement their courses. Students who made extensive use of the conceptual organization built into the system benefited more than the students who simply used the materials for information retrieval. The study found that hypermedia's effectiveness depended on the extent to which students internalized the conceptual structure as they browed the subject matter.

The ACCESS project orientation later shifted from teacher-created hypermedia materials to student-generated hypermedia documents. Students produced several small hypermedia documents of increasing size and complexity early in the school year to become familiar with the authoring process. Later, they generally took on one or more major research projects, the results of which were presented as hypermedia. According to Spoehr (1994), the structures that students impose on their hypermedia knowledge varied.

Five to ten percent of students underutilize the power of the hypermedia and used a linear format (i.e., one overview card followed by a linear series of screens).

But, most students produce more interesting organizational types, including the "star," in which the entry point was an overview containing buttons to two or more subtopics, each of which appears as a linear sequence, and the "tree," in which one or more main branches off the initial overview in the program are subdivided into further subtopics that are then organized as linear sequences or divided into sub-subtopics. Students using the "tree" organization showed more sophisticated understanding of the topic than students using the "star" structure.

There were many ways that the ACCESS Project students benefited from their experiences as hypermedia authors, most of which fall into the category of superior knowledge representation and higher-order thinking skills. Spoehr reported that students who built and used hypermedia developed a proficiency in organizing knowledge about a subject in a more expert-like fashion. They are able to represent multiple linkages between ideas and organize concepts into meaningful clusters. In turn, these superior knowledge representations supported more complex arguments in written essays. Most importantly, the conceptual organization skills acquired through building hypermedia were robust enough to allow students to generalize these skills to content that they acquired from other sources.

4.3.5 SchoolNet / Rescol Report: The emerging contribution of online resources and tools to classroom learning and teaching

The SchoolNet/Rescol Report was a two-year online research project from 1996 to 1998 that dealt with the contribution of new information technologies to learning and teaching in elementary and secondary schools and universities. The search was exhausted an included articles, reports, papers and books meeting the criteria for scholarly publications. The report found the following seven dominant trends in the use of technology in classrooms.

Trend 1: Higher Levels of control by learners are called for as classrooms are getting more online.

Trend 2: Learning situations become more realistic and authentic as classrooms are getting online.

Trend 3: Online resources boost student interest and motivation in the classroom through a greater diversity of learning goals, projects and outcomes.

Trend 4: The successful online classroom combines information technology with appropriate pedagogy.


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