Term Paper: Language and Literacy Jeanne S

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[. . .] Chall admits there is much more to learn. She acknowledges, for example, that additional research might show that a student-centered approach could be useful for advanced high school students

With research so clearly showing the success of teacher-directed learning, why do so many teachers refrain from the role of sage on the stage? Chall put part of the blame on middle-class parents, who want school to be fun for their little ones. But she also criticizes teachers and teacher-trainers who ignore or simply do not understand sound research. Whatever the purpose, this book is a must for people who work in and run schools.

Her book 'Teaching and Assessing Phonics' is for anyone who wants to seek a clearer comprehension of phonics from its earliest levels to its most advanced level. Based on research evidence on phonics and its instruction, this guide make possible curriculum developers and teachers to execute phonics in a balanced reading program. This book includes important phonics elements and generalizations, renders extensive word lists to aid in illustrating them, and recommend ways to teach and evaluate them at different reading levels. It also presents alternative approaches and procedures for those who find learning phonics complex. The book entails that the phonics approach produces better results, at least up to the point where sufficient evidence seems to be available, the end of the third grade. The results are better, not only in terms of the mechanical aspects of literacy alone, as was once supposed, but also in terms of the ultimate goals of reading instruction, comprehension and probably even the speed of reading.

Classroom research reveal that, on the average, children who are taught phonics get off to an excellent start in learning to read than children who are not taught phonics. The picture that come forth from the research is that phonics advance word identification and that fast, accurate word identification is an essential but not sufficient condition for comprehension. Thus, the issue is no longer, as it was several decades ago, whether children should be taught phonics. The issues now are explicit ones of just how it should be done.

She stressed that the most important skill in the beginning stages of reading is the capability to read single words completely, accurately, and fluently. Most of the variability in reading achievement at the end of first grade is accounted for by children's ability to break words out of context, using understanding of phonic correspondences. The most common and basic attribute of poor text reading is the inability to read single words precisely and fluently. Skill in word reading in turn relies on both phonological awareness and the development of rapid associations of speech. Therefore she stressed that this should be dealt in a more meaningful manner.

Chall asked why so many educational methods were used on a mass scale before research evidence supported their efficiency. Why were the same reforms designed again and again, under new labels, with little recognition that they resembled to practices and policies that had failed in the past? To answer this question, she pored over heap of qualitative and quantitative research studies and counseled with various primary sources. While analyzing transcripts of progressive studies in John Dewey's famous Chicago Lab School, she found that at the ages of fourteen and fifteen, the students were given special tutoring and review courses to get ready for their college board examinations. Students were being taught for college examinations in the old fashion. Evidently, she concluded that necessary expertise and traditional sources of learning needed to be mastered to compete for the professional and economic successes assured by acceptance to college.

Chall criticized that all too often educators presume that basics come naturally from an emphasis on higher mental processes. But this supposition has not been borne out by research or in practice. Indeed, advancement in higher-level cognitive skills, problem solving in math and comprehension in reading is generally slowed down when basic talent is not automatic. The traditional approach, with strong academic content at its center and a teacher directing the learning, seems to produce higher academic fulfillment than the hands-on, no textbook, group working, and student-centered curriculum. While the lack of effectiveness of student-centered approaches may or may not hinder the intellectual development of middle-class children, it is all too often harmful to low-income children.

The increasing need to educate children of different races, abilities, and genders has compelled educators to find literature and curriculum that best suits the mix of students in classrooms across America. To captivate an array of student's intellects, increase language skills, and contribute minority and children with a feeling of pride about themselves and their history, educators have started to take on multicultural, inclusion, and gender bias-free literature. Inclusion, multicultural and non-sexist children's literature also gives students in the 'majority' a consideration of their 'minority' peers effort, triumphs, and contribution to the culture and society.

Jeanne S. Chall's published books answers the need for a historical view of educational improvement. Chall focuses on one critical idea, an endeavor to completely reform instruction, such as whole language or the reforms articulated in the 1989 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards, that always hurt students. In fact, the extensive use of these reform models always damage the most vulnerable students, those who, heedless of social class, enter school with limited understanding, language, and skills. Chall discover that romantic views of reform models are regularly flushed with love and hope. Although policymakers approve reform models on the foundation of impressive and visionary rationales, empirical data hardly ever support these models. Chall maintain that reform movements, over a long time period, can have an absolute impact on education. Educators must affirm to the most reasonable components of the reform, such as extended teaching of the writing process, the strategic use of manipulatives, and the use of nonbase-10 systems in math.

Perhaps Chall's foremost offering to the examination of reform movements is her ability to persevere the wisdom she has gained from teaching and investigating reading instruction in U.S. schools. This experience infuses her writing with both practicality and appreciation for the essence of improvement.

Here I will present an account of the 6 stages proposed by American researcher Jeanne S. Chall that reading in English proceeds through. Jeanne has inferred from her research that can benefit people having problem in reading.

Stage 0 Pre-reading and pseudo-reading:

As children reaches the age of 6, they are likely to 'pretend' to read, retelling a story when looking at the pages of a book that has already been read to them, increasingly naming letters, recognizing some signs, printing their own names, and playing with the general paraphernalia of literacy. This process evolve naturally as a response to being read to by adults or older children who take a close and warm interest in that response. Most children at this stage can grasp simple picture books and the stories read to them, but have a hazy perception of what actually reading is.

Stage 1: Initial reading and decoding: Between 6 and 7, children learn the familiarity between sounds and letters and between spoken and printed words. They are able to read simple texts containing short, high frequency words that are spelt more or less regularly and sound out monosyllables. If they acquire instruction in phonics, they are often read to from a level just above their own capability to read. Generally, their level of reading at this stage is well inferior to their potential to control speech. Although it is not easy to quantify words known and used, Chall estimates that they can interpret some 4,000 spoken words and some 600 written or printed words.

Stage 2: Confirmation and fluency: Between 7 and 8, children may strengthen their skills, increasing their range of reading, their fluency, their general vocabulary, and their capability to break the elements of words. Again, help may often include being read to at a level above their own ability. At the end of this stage, they can grasp an estimated 9,000 spoken words and 3,000 written or printed words.

Stage 3: Reading for learning: Between the age of 9 and 14, reading is no longer an end in itself but becomes a means by which further learning and experience can be advanced. Use extends beyond the immediate subjects of school and includes textbooks, reference books, and periodicals ranging from comic books to newspapers and encyclopedias.

Reading becomes part of a general experience of language that is possibly to embrace explicit discussion of language skills, particularly writing and spelling. At the beginning of this stage, listening comprehension of the same material is more prevailing than reading comprehension, but by the end the two are roughly equal. For certain young people, reading may have edged ahead.

Stage 4: Multiplicity and complexity. From 14 to 17, if all has gone well, students are reading reasonably widely from a range of increasingly complex materials, both description and expository, and varied in… [END OF PREVIEW]

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