Chapter Writing: How language and scaffolding techniques help ELL students

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SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] (6.2)

Example:

Social Studies - Understanding explanations without concrete referents

Listen to a verbal explanation of the causes of World War II.

ELL Scaffolding: Written outline with vocabulary

· PICK 2 SUBJECTS. Fill in the content column with examples for the functions that apply

· In the ELL column describe what scaffolding is needed for ELLs

LISTENING

Science

Math

Social

Studies

Literature

ELA

What ELL Scaffolding is needed?

1. Understanding explanations

listen to key facets and techniques

listen carefully for important side notes

create a written outline

2. Listening for specific information

listen to all the specifications of formulas

focus on opening and concluding sentences

have a visual aid outline

3. Understanding explanations without concrete referents

Listen to a verbal explanation of the causes of World War II

Written outline with vocabulary

4. Following directions for experiments

listen to the step by step format

listen to similar researches done in the past

create a digram with important key box on the side

5. Understanding oral numbers

listen to the format of the problem

focus on the primary problem highligted

create a written structure for the problems identified

6. Understanding oral word problems

focus on making meental notes for numerical facts mentioned in the problem

listen carefully to the entire problem

have written problems available on worksheets

SPEAKING

1. Answering questions

speak specifically and to the point

speak creatively

have written notes to support what is being said

2. Asking for clarification

identify what hasnt been understood and form interrogative statements to pose questions

ask creatively designed interrogative questions?

write the questions. note the answers in bullet outline

3. Participating in discussions

engage with factual analysis

engage with authentic researvh

access to relevant databases

4. Explaining and demonstrating a process

focus on scientific fact

focus on formulas

use sentence frames

5. Presenting oral reports

interpret analysis and paraphrase

use technical terms and vocabulary

use visual aids and graphs

6. Explaining how an answer was derived

keep explanation brief and to the point

use the support of mathematical formulas

use graphs

READING

1. Understanding specialized vocabulary

highlight difficult text to decipher

engage in creative use of words

use sentence frames

2. Understanding information/explanations in textbooks

use systematic graphs

read and reread

relate prior knowledge with new experience

3. Finding information from graphs, charts, and tables

employ breakdown of each component

use visual aids

use sentence frames

4. Following directions for experiments

use bullets to breakdown

use formulas

use sentence frames

5. Finding information in reference materials

be specific with the use of facts

use index

use index material

6. Reading at varied rates (skimming and scanning)

read topic and concluding sentences

read summary and conclusion

use selective reading methods

7. Reading mathematical notations and equations

differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information

highlight important and key facts

relearn or reteach academic vocabulary

8. Understanding written word problems

read and write important facts

write facts and formulas

use breakdown of information method to highlight the kep components

WRITING

1. Writing answers to questions

be factual

be clear and concise

2. Noting observations

use technical terms

use appropriate vocabulary

dictionaries for written vocabulary

3. Describing experiments

use descriptive words

use formulas and minimal explanation

dictionaries and thesaurus for written vocabulary

4. Writing reports

keep it precise aand exact

give creative details

dictionaries and newspapers alongside access to journals will be important

5. Labeling maps, graphs, and charts

be specific

be specific

use 3d visal aid supports

6. Writing verbal input numerically

be very accurate

use exact dates and details

use sentence frames

Adapted by A. Willig (1989). from Chamot, A.U. & O'Malley, J.M. (1986). A cognitive academic language learning approach: An ESL contentbased curriculum. Rosslyn, VA: NCBE.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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