Latin American Terrorism Issues Research Paper

Pages: 25 (7613 words)  ·  Style: MLA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 25  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Terrorism

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)

This group of terrorist is relatively weak and less active. Very few activities have been reported by this group. It has more than 32000 members dismissed. Thus, it remains inactive as a formal group. Despite of its less activities, many old members of AUC are engaged in criminal activities mostly drug trafficking, in newly emerging criminal organizations (known as BACRIM, BandasCriminalesEmergentes). This newly emerging group has more than 3500 and less than 6000 members. To cope with this situation, Colombian government has taken multiple steps and made new laws. These laws are being implemented properly in order to generate peace in the region. One of the unique and most effective laws made in this context is the thorough and detailed investigation of demobilized paramilitaries under the Justice and Peace Law. This law is designed in a way that it promoted and motivates these criminals to admit their crime and return the profits. The Colombian government continued to process and investigates demobilized paramilitaries under the Justice and Peace Law, which offers judicial benefits and reduced prison sentences for participants who confess fully to their crimes and return all illicit profits. Many former AUC members also were receiving some reintegration benefits[footnoteRef:5]. [5: Rudqvist, Anders. "Greed or Social Injustice? Competing Approaches to Conflict Resolution and Sustainable Peace in Colombia ." Ibero-americana (2006): 66-69.]

The leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)

Over the past numerous years, the FARC has been destabilizedconsiderably by the government's military campaign against it, including the killings of several FARC commanders in 2007 and the groups second in command, Raul Reyes, during a Colombian government raid on a FARC camp in Ecuador on March 1, 2008[footnoteRef:6]. In May 2008, the FARC's long-time leader, Manuel Marulanda, had died of a heart attack in March. In July 2008, a Colombian military operation in the southeastern province of Guaviare rescued 15 long-held hostages, including three U.S. defense contractors held since February 2003 -- Thomas Howes, Keith Stansell, and Marc Gonsalves; Colombian Senator and presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt; and other Colombians. The Colombian military dealt a significant blow to the terrorist group in September2010 when it killed a top military commander, Victor Julio Suarezin bombing raid on his camp in a mountainous region of Meta department in central Colombia. Even more significantly, in early November 2011, the Colombian military killed FARC leader Alfonso Cano in a bombing raid in the department of Cauca in southwestern Colombia. These killings of its significant leaders have been playing a vital role to destabilize this group. Change of rule again and again somehow negatively impacts leadership. It weakens its position and control. Same thing happened with this group. In the outcome of Cano's death, Rodrigo Londono, also known as Timoleon Jimenez or Timochenko, a long-time member of the FARC Secretariat, was chosen as the FARC's new leader in mid-November 2011. [6: Murillo-Urrutia, Luis Gilberto. "Contemporary Challenges in Colombia: An Afro-Colombian Perspective ." The Journal of Pan African Studies (Online) (2007): 44-56.]

The FARC is still assessed to have strength of around 8,000, with the group accountable for terrorist attacks, coercion, and kidnappings. In late November 2011, the FARC executed four hostages who had been held for more than a decade when the Colombian military approached a guerrilla camp in the southern department of Caqueta.[footnoteRef:7] This was a major setback for the Colombian military. It negatively impacted its position and spread fear among the nation. [7: Procell, Richard,. "Global Security Challenges with Potential Links to Terrorism." Military Review (2002): 28-32.]

Colombian terrorist groups endured to consume territory of numerous of Colombia's neighbors which includes Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela according to the State Department's terrorism report. The FARC has training and logistical supply camps along Ecuador's northern border with Colombia. While Ecuador's relations with Colombia became tense in the aftermath of Colombia's March 2008 military raid on a FARC camp in Ecuador's Sucumbios province,

Ecuador's military laterimproved the number of operations against the FARC in its northern border region. Nonetheless, according to the 2010 terrorism report, resource limitationsand inadequatecompetencesexaggerated Ecuador's actions. Under new Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos, the two countries made progress in refining bilateral relations, and reinstated diplomatic relations in December 2010.

In Panama, a small number of FARC members from the group's 57th Front were reported to operate in the country's Darien province bordering Colombia, using the area as a safe haven. In January 2010, three FARC members were killed and two were captured in a clash with Panamanian forces in Darien, while late in 2010, Panama and Colombia agreed to establish police stations near each side of the border[footnoteRef:8]. [8: Contemporary Challenges in Colombia: An Afro-Colombian Perspective ." Journal of Pan African Studies (2007): 567-589.]

In Peru, the FARC was reported to use remote areas along the Colombian-Peruvian border to rest, regroup, and make arms purchases. According to the State Department terrorism report, experts contend that the FARC continued to fund coca cultivation and cocaine production among thePeruvian population in border areas.

As defined in the 2010 terrorism report, the Colombian government of President Alvaro Uribe openlyblamed the Venezuelan government multiple times during the year of harboring members of the FARC and ELN in its territory. In July 2010, the Uribe government presented evidence at the OAS of FARC training camps in Venezuela. In response, Venezuela suspended diplomatic relations on July 22, 2010, yet less than three weeks later new Colombian President Santos met with Venezuelan President Chavez and the two leaders agreed to reestablish diplomatic relations and to improve military patrols along their border. In congressional testimony on February 15, 2011, Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Arturo Valenzuela maintained that there was reduced Venezuelan support for the FARC since President Santos has reached out to Venezuela.Since then, Venezuela has captured and returned to Colombia several members of the FARC. In October 2011 congressional testimony, a U.S. official maintained that there continues to be evidence that the FARC are sheltering in Venezuela. This is how FARC and Columbia has been going through in different times. Columbian's government has been making a continuous effort to destabilize the position and strength of FARC and in many situations, it has succeeded in this mission but has failed to crunch its power completely.

Cuba

The Department of State, pursuant to Section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act (EAA) of1979, has claimed that Cuba is among those few states that have been playing a significant role in supporting terrorist activities since 1982. Other states that have been claimed to be significantly important in supporting terrorist activities include Iran, Syria and Sudan. Communist Cuba had a history of backup revolutionary movements and governments in Latin America and Africa, but in 1992, then Cuban leader Fidel Castro said that his country's support for rebels abroad was a an act of the past and they would not continue to do so. Their policy in context changed basically due the breakup of the Soviet Union caused in the loss of billions in aids and supports. These activities usually involve financial assistance to be carried out and the breakup of the Soviet Union affected its financial position.As in previous years, the report upheld that Cuba continued to condemn U.S. counterterrorism strugglesglobally. During this time, many people suspected that Cuba has been linked with the leftist National Liberation Army (ELN), United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) and the leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and has been supporting terrorism but research reports did not bring any such fact to light[footnoteRef:9]. They have been making an effort to stop the support for rebels abroad. [9: Perez, Ricardo Torres. "Economic Changes in Cuba: Current Situation and Perspectives ." Harvard International Review (2012): 33-45.]

Venezuela

Lately, Venezuela has been a converted to a place where terrorism and drug activities have gained an easy access. It is considered as a heaven for criminal involved in these vices. Thus it needs few major amendments in order to uproot this evil from this region and one of the most significant steps would be to restore democratic system properly[footnoteRef:10]. In one of the Bloomberg Latin America Investing Conference in New York, Uribe said that "It needs a new government, a new orientation in Venezuela, for this country to get rid of macro-trafficking, to get rid of terrorism and to get rid of dictators." The person who has blamed for this deterioration is Hugo Chavez. He was the president of Venezuela from 1999 till his death in 2013. Previously he was selected as the leader of Fifth Republic Movement political party. This party was established in 1997 and was merged with several other parties to form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela in 2007. During all these years Hugo Chavez lead this party. This person has been blamed for all the criminal activities of Venezuela as individual freedom is adversely affected… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Latin American Terrorism Issues.  (2013, April 15).  Retrieved December 17, 2018, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/latin-america-american-terrorism-issues/6069028

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"Latin American Terrorism Issues."  Essaytown.com.  April 15, 2013.  Accessed December 17, 2018.
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