Term Paper: Leadership Analysis Historical Context Saddam Hussein

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Leadership Analysis

Historical context

Saddam Hussein short biography

Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Alnahyan short biography

Leadership analysis of the two former Arab leaders

General leadership analysis

Leadership analysis according to Andrew J. DuBrin's theories..

s present an analysis between the leadership styles of Saddam Hussein of Iraq on the one hand, and Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Alnahyan of the United Arab Emirates on the other hand.

The two leaders are completely opposite. Saddam exerted an autocratic leadership style, while Zayed exerted a democratic style.

They present similar innate characteristics that helped hem gain leadership of two important Arab regions.

Their leadership styles are based on different values: Saddam was focusing on strategy, while Zayed was focusing on communication and human aspiration.

However, both of them managed to inspire people, to persuade them, to attract them on their side, and to make them commit to their causes. Zayed, given his positive actions, is admired even now, after his death, and is considered to be a model for those to come. Saddam, although very contested by most, had his share of admirers also.

Introduction

Leadership is the process through which a person, or group of persons, establishes an objective or a direction for other persons to follow and determines them to act together with competency and full dedication in order to accomplish the established objectives.

Leadership is entirely based on team spirit that has a great pragmatic importance. Basically, team spirit is defined as the state that reflects people's desire for thinking, feeling and acting in harmony with other leaders of the group they are part of, in order to attain a common goal.

Leadership's approach has suffered several modifications during the past decades. In the first half of the XX century leadership was considered to be an attribute that some people were born with. This was the time when leadership was associated to great personalities. After the 1950s leadership theoretical concepts and pragmatic approaches have significantly changed. Therefore, it was considered that, although leadership requires certain innate qualities, adequate education may ensure the accomplishment of competent leadership.

Leadership's content, way of manifestation and effectiveness are the result of several major or determinant factors. Three of these factors are determinant: leader's innate qualities, his education or training, and the situation where the leader stands.

First of all, among the most important innate qualities that any leader must have are intelligence and charisma. Innate intelligence consists in the leader's ability to formulate efficient and attractive objectives, the ability to establish mobilizing methods for attracting other persons into accomplishing the objectives, the ability to observe the most adequate arguments that, once they are presented, attract and persuade others to get involved in certain activities. Another essential quality is charisma, the leader's ability to inspire and to amplify other person's involvement in certain activities. Charisma may be positive or negative, in accordance with the positive or negative effects on those following the leader. Other important qualities are ambition, determination, persistence and acerbity.

Second of all, another determinant factor for leadership is the leader's education or training. General education represents the basis for the leader's general behavior, both individual and social, and has important effects on the communicational level. Special training in technical, economic, military or other fields, ensures personal competency and prestige of great importance in relationships with others.

And third of all, leadership is significantly determined by the situation the leader stands in. The past three decades' researches grant great attention to this factor. The situation in which the leader acts determines in multiple ways the type of leadership that should be practiced. As a matter of fact, one can distinguish a double leadership conditioning: the general contextual conditioning (that reflects the basic characteristics of the leader's organization: quality of human resources, their specific culture, the existing and possible resources, strategy, the compatibility between the leader's personality and approach and the organizational context) and the situational conditioning (the roles that the leader must assume).

Historical context

Saddam Hussein, Iraq's last president, and Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Alnahyan, United Arab Emirates' last president, are two of the greatest modern world leaders. Their leadership, that had positive effects on some and negative effects on others, have altered the course of history forever.

1.1. Saddam Hussein short biography

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was born on April 28, 1937 in the town of Al-Awja, 8 miles from the Iraqi town of Tikrit. He descends from a family of shepherds from the al-Begat tribal group. He never knew his father and spent his first three years in his maternal uncle's family. His mother's remarriage gained Saddam three half-brothers. His stepfather contributed to Saddam's future severity that he showed his entire leadership, treating him harshly. At the age of ten he returned to Baghdad to live with his uncle Kharaillah Tulfah, who had a great influence on Saddam's development and the direction he followed in life. Saddam's uncle was a militant Iraqi nationalist who taught Saddam many things and guided him to attend a nationalistic high school in Baghdad. He attended an Iraqi law school for three years, but dropped it in 1957 in exchange of joining the revolutionary pan-Arab Ba'ath Party (that his uncle supported) that his uncle supported. The geopolitical context in Saddam's youth had a great influence on him: Saddam, as a young Ba'athist, was significantly influenced by the pan-Arab nationalism of Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser's wave of revolutions in the Middle East in the 1950s and 1960s led to the collapse of the monarchies of Iraq, Egypt, and Libya. Nasser was also responsible for politically uniting the Arab world and for rising revolutionary sentiments to nationalists all over Middle East. Saddam held the position of secretary of the Ba'ath Party. In 1964 he was imprisoned. After escaping from prison, in 1967, he rapidly became a leading member of the party.

In 1968, Saddam became Iraq's president's deputy and deputy chairman of the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council. Although he was one of the Party's front men, he was also a strong behind the scenes politician. By 1969 Saddam was considered to be the Party's moving force.

He took his political role very serious, as he tried to strengthen and to unify the party. He also took a leading role in addressing the country's major domestic problems. Saddam strongly supported the modernization of Iraq's economy and the creation of a strong security apparatus. He based his entire strategy on Iraq's oil.

In 1976 Saddam became the general of the Iraqi's armed forces. Between 1979 and 2003 he was the President of the Republic of Iraq.

In December 2003, Saddam was captured near Tikrit. He was unrecognizable. His trial started in June 2004. A few weeks later, he was charged by the Iraqi Special Tribunal with crimes committed against residents of Dujail in 1982. Specific charges included the murder of 148 people, torture and illegal arrest of 399 people. In November 2006 he was found guilty of crimes against humanity and was sentenced to death by hanging. He was executed in December 2006 at Camp Justice.

1.2. Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Alnahyan short biography

Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Alnahyan was born in Abu Dhabi in 1918. Both his father and grandfather ruled Abu Dhabi before him.

Since 1927 Zayed spent most of his youth in the oasis of Al Ain with Bedouin tribesmen. This is the place where he received his religious education, where he learned the Noble Quran. His future development was significantly influenced by the biography of Prophet Muhammad that inspired most of his future actions.

He was one of the most respected personalities in the United Arab Emirates and other Arab nations across Middle East. The United Arab Emirates citizens consider him to be the father of the nation.

His political career started in 1946 when he was appointed Ruler's Representative in the oasis town of Al Ain. He managed the tribes through consultation and consensus.

In the beginning of his leadership Abu Dhabi was a poor and underdeveloped region with an economy based on fishing and pearl diving along the coast.

However, the economic situation started to improve due to the oil discovery in 1958. Zayed started taking measures that would develop the region so that the differences between Abu Dhabi and the rest of the world would be diminished. He significantly influenced the economic and political conditions in the Emirates. Among the results his implication had are: massive building plan housing facilities, schools, hospitals, airport, seaport, roads, a bridge linking Abu Dhabi to the mainland.

Zayed cooperated with his tribal neighbours, establishing closer relationships with other Emirates, taking a major role into forming a federation. As a consequence, the United Arab Emirates was formed in December 1971 was elected President and reelected ever since.

The federation's development over the past three decades is very significant. Zayed is also responsible for ensuring the status quo politically and socially. He also had a leading role in establishing the Gulf Cooperation Council in 1981.

Zayed… [END OF PREVIEW]

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