Term Paper: Leadership Technical, Interpersonal, and Conceptual

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[. . .] These variables include criterion variables, managerial behaviors, situational variables, and intervening variables. Some of these variables tend to be highly influential in determining the effectiveness of a leader. Another set of variables moderating the impact of leaders on group performance involves situational characteristics. Two situational factors influence the efforts of followers like intrinsically work-motivated properties and formal reward systems (Phillips, 1993). In the multiple-linkage theory, intervening factors could be directly affected by situational characteristics. On the other hand, situational variables could directly affect intervening variables.

The Difference between position power and personal power

The two common sources of power come from position power and personal power. Although they share a few things, they also have some differences. While position power stems from top management, personal power stems from followers based on the behavior of the leader (Phillips, 1993). Looking at the power position, an individual holding a management position has more power to exert influence than a worker who is not a manager. On the other hand, in personal power, followers tend to have power over the leaders. In fact, followers must consent to the governing influence of managers of the company to be successful. For instance, unions are a result of followers dissatisfied with the behavior of management and the desire for power balance (Yukl, 2012). Despite the differences, both sources of power are viewed in a positive sense. Without position and personal power, managers might not achieve organizational objectives. Both of them go hand in hand with leadership. Employees use personal power to get the job done while managers utilize position power to succeed. Within the business world, position power and personal power are viewed as integral prerequisites for the effectiveness of an organization.

Elements of emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the ability for a person to recognize and manage his/her emotions, as well as other people's emotions. The following diagram is a summary of the four fundamental elements of emotional intelligence:

Figure 1: Elements of Emotional Intelligence

Self-awareness -- this refers to how aware a person is and how accurately a person can assess his/her emotions. Most people are often busy that they rarely take time to think about how they are responding to situations and how they come across. It is challenging people to see how other people are responding to them because most people tend to see what they want to see. As such, they tend to avoid uncomfortable actions of seeking feedback from others. Phillips (1993) shows that Lincoln "advised others to 'never add the weight of your character to a charge against a person without knowing it to be true'" (54).

Self-Management -- this is the ability of a person to control his/her emotions. This aspect also incorporates a person's adaptability, optimism, achievement, and transparency. A key factor here is whether an individual reacts or responds to situations.

Social Awareness -- this focuses on service and empathy level, which form social awareness. A person improves his/her awareness by fine-tuning his/her radar for the emotional environment in a group and recognizing power dynamics. This involves taking personal responsibility even in the most awkward and unwanted situations (Phillips, 1993).

Relationship Management -- this refers to developing other people by serving as an inspiring leader and change catalyst, collaborating with high performing teams and managing conflicts; all these are aspects of relationship management. A person will be higher on these characteristics if other people perceive him/her likeable and able to work well with diver groups even in the midst of conflict and stress. Therefore, for a person to achieve this, he/she requires the other three elements (Yukl, 2012).

References

Phillips, D. T (1993). Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times. Warner Books,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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