Term Paper: Learning That Is Imparted

Pages: 25 (8696 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 20  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Teaching  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Instructing English in a work-based environment may increase chances of professional growth. The participants of work-based learning programs get a whole new world of resources accessible by learning a language that has noteworthy professional importance. Rosen (1999) reported ESL as being the most taught language surpassing Spanish in all centers of Berlitz in the U.S. English for reading purposes, English for communication within organizations, and English for developing basic writing skills by the secretaries and lower administrative staff will also increase in the industry called English for occupational purposes (EOP). Actionbased (Cunningham, Dawes & Bennett, 2004)and project based (Wrigley, 1998) have become two important methodologies for ESL in work-based environments. Their acceptance from the employers is more as compared to other class room-based methods.

2.1.3- Functional approach to SLA

Functional theory of SLA holds that language is mainly used for communicating and without users, language does not exist (VanPatten, 2008; 57). There has been considerable difference in instruction of ESL for functional and analytical or intellectual purposes. The functional approach is narrow and only emphasizes upon providing very basic competence in English language. It deprives the participant of functional ESL program from reading comprehension development, vocabulary, and effective spoken skills (Tollefson, 1995). Occupational programs of ESL have not yet removed this inconsistency regarding instruction of English with two different approaches (Warschauer, 2000).

2.2 Historical background

The historical background section will introduce the institutional evolution of work-based learning (WBL) and ESL in U.K. With primary focus on WBL and ESL in U.K, reference to development in U.S. shall also be made to holistically acquaint the reader about the development of ESL. Following sub-section describes WBL and its historical background.

2.2.1 Work-based learning (WBL)

Work-based learning is related to on-job training to enhance skills of, language and numeracy to increase the chances of employability for an individual. In U.K, 'sitting next to Nellie' was the program in early 1950s in which new employees were placed with an experienced worker to learn skills used in job performance. After the introduction of competency based assessment, the learning aspect of an individual got back-tracked but recently, the British government, since 2000s has emphasized the role of work-based learning to enhance language and numeracy as well as technical skills of young and adult workforce (Moore, 2012).

2.2.2 Adult literacy and ESL

Adult literacy in U.K has been redefined after the Moser report reviewed the Adult Basic Education (ABE) in 1999 that described what literacy is and how the government may address the issue of inadequate literacy among adults. Literacy is categorized as functional, critical, and liberal concept of literacy. Functional form of literacy refers to reading and writing abilities that enable a person to function in a group or alone. Critical literacy relates to a person's ability to not only read the words but also the world around. The critical literacy concept is much holistic and deep as compared to functional. Liberal literacy concept was enabled by humanist movements and in Britain; it is related to adult liberal education. Advantageous classes assume responsibility to educate the disadvantaged groups of society. U.K currently employs a liberal adult literacy concept to educate adult population. English as a second language (ESOL) assumes primary importance in adult literacy programs as language is a medium through which learning in other disciplines take place. Adult literacy, ESOL, and numeracy has been brought to British agenda after Moser report in 1999 that indicated significant percentage of British adults being illiterate and lacking numeracy and language skills. Thus, it is 2000 and afterwards that ESOL and adult literacy efforts have been institutionalized in U.K.

In early 1900s, independent labor unions appreciated the need for immigrants to learn English for acquiring increased rights at workplace along with U.S. citizenship. It was not until the enactment of The Adult Education Act in 1966 that imparting of English as a foreign language to workers with limited English proficiency was realized (Moore & Stavrianos, 1994). In U.K, English language teaching (ELT) was recognized to be a profession only in the nineteenth century. This was a great leap from being a language of just under three million people in early 1400s (Howatt, & Widdowson, 1981). During early 1980s, researchers such as John C. Osterman observed few chances of radical change in employers' willingness to enable the work-based learning for their employees. Later on, there was a gradual transition of work-based learning from being in one industry to several others (Kopp, Kazis & Churchill, 1995).

A decade later it was Cowan (2005) who mentioned that community participation through the 'Alinsky tradition' (A participatory framework to accomplish social causes through community organization of different institutions such as labor unions, churches, and other publicly run bodies. Saul Alinsky was the founder of this method that has inspired modern day community organization programs) had increased in all domains of life except work-based learning and adult education. The researcher suggests that society had underestimated the impact that depriving adults from work-based learning (also life-long learning) has on the 'quality of life'. The collective consciousness of society has therefore evolved for adult literacy (Quigley, 1997) and now considerable effort, both by employers and government bodies is made to increase adult literacy through work-based learning. Cowan (2005) also observes that fundamental issue in imparting work-based learning is not procedural but political. This involves the process to muster significant social and financial support for life-long learning from workplace.

It needs not to be overlooked that literacy development is not only necessary for a person's career development but for a society's 'quality of life' as well. While there remain considerable difference in evolution of work-based learning in the U.S. And U.K, following review of pertinent literature will include scholarly resources from both the countries. Unwin and Fuller (2003) conducted a study to recommend ways and means of improving literacy and work-based learning in U.K, which concluded that i) the need for greater coherence between institutions charged with improvement in work-based learning ii) public funding to be provided to those firms only that commit to expand their role for work-based learning iii) focus should also be on younger section of people in need of work-based learning iv) establishing standards and nominating benchmark private employers that foster learning-based work-environment. Sponsored by National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England), the study adequately sheds light on importance of work-based learning. A functional approach for imparting learning of ESL was advocated during late 1980s in the U.S. (Jurmo, 1993).

It was emphasized that a gap between work place requirements of literacy and employees' skills was to be minimized. Burtand Saccomano (1995) mentioned that National Workplace Literacy Program (NWLP) launched more than 300 adult literacy programs from 1988-94, having 49% ESL inclusive courses. In the backdrop of such heavy emphasis on work-based learning, promotion of English as second language (ESL) becomes paramount in work-based learning. Multi-cultural and multi-ethnic countries such as the U.S. And U.K have significant percentage of immigrant population contributing both economically and socially. Following section reviews literature that elaborates the broad framework and methodologies through which ESL can be promoted in work-based learning.

2.3 Reading comprehension in ESL

The use of English as a second language includes the basic functions of communication performed through reading, writing, listening, and speaking. This section emphasizes the role of reading comprehension in work-based instruction of ESL. Reading texts, written materials, and instructions are primary task involved in educational as well as professional life. The more a person is able to read and comprehend the central idea of written material, the more he/she is able to communicate the reaction to written material. Vocabulary forms the main building block in reading communication. Thorndike (1973) described vocabulary as the most 'considerable factor' in the assessment of reading comprehension skills. The finding being relevant to children is also applicable on people working in professional environments. The 'instrumental hypothesis' developed by Anderson and Freebody (1981) holds true that a causal relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehension exists. The reading skills are improved through relative improvement in vocabulary of words.

Vocabulary is the words meanings that a person is familiar with. The language competence of a person is reflected through the use of vocabulary (McKeown & Curtis, 1987). The context in which words are used and their meanings decoded is also vitally important in language instruction (Graves & Watts-Taffe, 2002). 'Syntactic and Semantic cues' (McKeown & Curtis, 1987) are therefore important in building of vocabulary. Johnson and Pearson (1984) correctly identified many such cues that are present within the context of material being read. Most of the vocabulary therefore is learnt in contextual terms rather than academic (Sternberg, 1987). This implies that adult education should use the contextual model to instruct ESL, specifically in work-based learning where contexts are numerous to derive the meanings. This approach has been criticized as well due to it ignoring the fact that contexts are not always available for interpretation (Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002).

2.4 Spoken English in ESL programs

There… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

?
Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 25-page paper:  $28.88

or

2.  Buy + remove from all search engines
(Google, Yahoo, Bing) for 30 days:  $38.88

or

3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)

or

4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Learning Theories in 2009-2010 Term Paper


Learning Style Knowledge of Learning Styles Research Paper


Learning Theories With a Focus on Albert Term Paper


Managing the Learning Organization Book Report


Learning Theory Often, Learning Theories Is Mixed Term Paper


View 706 other related papers  >>

Cite This Term Paper:

APA Format

Learning That Is Imparted.  (2013, February 27).  Retrieved June 24, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/learning-imparted/1133985

MLA Format

"Learning That Is Imparted."  27 February 2013.  Web.  24 June 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/learning-imparted/1133985>.

Chicago Format

"Learning That Is Imparted."  Essaytown.com.  February 27, 2013.  Accessed June 24, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/learning-imparted/1133985.