Learning Theories to Current Education Research Paper

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SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] The students who experienced peer models perform best on a subtraction post-test, as well reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The outcome were interpreted as backing up the hypothesis that supposed correspondence of the model to the learner raise in self-efficacy, resulting to more efficient learning of modeled behaviors. It is believed that peer modeling is specifically effective for students who posses low self-efficacy.

Over the decade that has passed, a lot of research activity in educational psychology has concentrated on developing self-regulated learning (SRL) and metacognition theories. These theories operates from the central premise that effectual learners are active agents who create knowledge by setting goals, analyzing duty, planning strategies and keeping eye on their understanding. Research has showed that learners who are good at setting the goals and self-monitoring tend to posses superior intrinsic duty interest and self-efficacy and that teaching learning strategies can raises academic attainment, Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005).

The Cognitive Learning Theories

Educational psychologists have influenced the cognitive approach by believing that children actively create knowledge in a social context. Lev Vygotsky suggest that every learning to take place in the "zone of proximal development" (SPD). From the Vygotsky analysis SPD is the diversity between what a child is capable of doing alone and what he/she can do when being assisted. By building on experience of the child and offering moderately challenging tasks, teachers can offer the intellectual scaffolding to assist children learn and advance through the different stages of development. As per their description, the SPD is the distance linking the actual developmental level as determined by self-governing problem solving and the degree of potential development as determined via problem solving under the guidance of adult or in association with more capable peers "(Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86). The Cognitive approach stress the ability of students to give solution to real-life, practical problems. Students are required to work in groups but not individually, and they are suppose to give their center of attention on projects that needs a solutions to problems but not on instructional sequences that needs learning of a given content skills. The work of the teacher in constructivist models is to organize for needed resources and perform as a steer to students while they set their own objective and teach themselves. Theories of cognitive learning put their center of attention on the learner, thus explaining learning on the basis of cognitive processes, representations and structures that are believed to function within the learner. Based on cognitive theory, learning theory has been influenced in most important ways: learning is a process of linking new information to previously learned information; learning is an active, constructive process; knowledge is organized; people be in charge of and organize their own learning; a major worry is revealed for analyzing learning duty and performance in terms of the cognitive processes that are involved.

Cognitive Educational Instructional Design Models

Cooperative/Collaborative Learning: It where students operate in teams to master academic materials; teams consist of high, average, and low achievers, and are mixed racially and sexually; reward systems are group-oriented Conway, Judith (1997). Cognitive apprenticeship: learning with the help of guided-experience which assist teaching the processes that experts use to solve complex tasks. Students observe experts demonstrating a task that they are required to accomplish as based on their observations. While observing, students obtain hints, remainders feedback. Being under pressure to do exploration, students are forced into a mode of problem-solving on their own. Exploration/Discovery learning: Because students are more probably to memorize concepts they discover by themselves, they are needed to network with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects or by performing experiments. This method of learning is most victorious if students have precondition knowledge and undergo some structured experiences.

CONCLUTION

Learning theories to the current education under cognitive helps the learner to use the knowledge acquired presently to find a solution to a given problem and can memorize the knowledge got before and apply it in solving a given problem Since learners work in groups and act from what they had observed, they build confidence while solving problem and this makes their retention power to be high. Teachers are advisable to organize their materials well for their teaching activities. Learners who are good at setting the goals and self-monitoring will always posses superior intrinsic duty interest and self-efficacy therefore teaching learning strategies can raise academic attainment.

WORK CITED

Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 641 -- 655.

Cognitivism Theories: http://web.syr.edu/~walker/COGNITIVISMTHEORIES.htm

Conway, Judith (1997).Educational Technology's Effect on Models of Instruction. http://copland.udel.edu/~jconway/EDST666.htm#cogapp

Furth, H.G., & Wachs, H. (1975). Thinking goes to school: Piaget's theory in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Journey to Excellence: Cognitivism: http://www.journeytoexcellence.org/practice/instruction/theories/moretheories/cognitivism.phtml

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [END OF PREVIEW]

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