Term Paper: Learning Theories With a Focus on Albert

Pages: 7 (1869 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Teaching  ·  Buy This Paper

¶ … learning theories with a focus on Albert Bandura and his development of the environmental learning theory. The writer then explores the developmental theory, the environmental theory an the cross over between the two. The final focus of this paper is to explain how Bandura's theories and beliefs dovetail with the author's theories and teaching approach.

Since the inception of public education in America students have entered classrooms in which teachers used not only curriculums but also various learning theories and philosophies with which it impart those curriculums to them. Whether the grade was kindergarten or senior in high school each teacher brings forth their personal teaching theory and practice that they hope will help cement not only the lessons into the minds of students but will also help to instill a life long love of learning for future grades and beyond. While it is important for each teacher to develop his or her own learning theory and style they are influenced by various entities along the way. For the author of this paper several theories have played a part in the development of style and teaching practice but the most influential person to date has been that of well-known theorist Albert Bandura.

THE THEORIES

Before one can begin to understand how a teaching practice develops one needs to have a grasp and understanding of learning theories in general and how they operate. The developmental theory, environmental theory and crossover occurrence are all elements of interest to a student majoring in the field of teaching for these theories help the student teacher to understand how their students learn and why they do the things they do within that process. Each of the theories was developed by a well-known expert in the processes of children and each of them has strengths and weaknesses that can be utilized by teachers worldwide in the quest to deliver the most optimum curriculum possible.

THE DVELOPMENTAL THEORY

The developmental theory, coined by famed child expert Jean Piaget positions itself that children learn by building on cognitive stepping stones.

The premise behind the development theory of learning is that children learn different things during different ages or stages of development in their growth.

Most developmentalists hypothesize stages through which learners pass in which the learners will respond differently to stimuli or to different situations in the learning environment. Most would argue that these stages relate to cognitive, affective, or moral learning in the sense that a learner enmeshed in a given stage will function differently when exposed to a potential learning than will a similar learner in a different stage (or one who is in transition between stages) (Developmental Learning Theory http://home.okstate.edu/homepages.nsf/toc/EPSY5463C9)."

Developmental theories argue that development must be taken into consideration for the theory to be accurate.

The developmental theory of learning is built on observations about where the learner has been more than where the learner may go and from those observations the theory is born and expanded upon.

Glasser (1976) argues, "A theory of learning describes, after the fact, (italics added) the conditions under which some competency is acquired" (p. 4). Erikson implies stage related behavior is only postdictive when he says the knowledge of resolution in a single stage only generally predicts the resolution of the next stage. Failure in an earlier stage (trust vs. mistrust) would indicate more problems in resolving the next stage, but successful resolution of a previous stage (industry vs. inferiority) does not mean the next stage (identity vs. role diffusion) will be resolved (Developmental Learning Theory http://home.okstate.edu/homepages.nsf/toc/EPSY5463C9)."

In this same line of thinking the developmental theory of learning rests. If a student fails to learn the stage below the current stage the learner will then encounter difficulty with this step. In addition the learner must be cognitively developed enough to expand to the next level of learning or instruction.

The developmental learning theory believes that learners will learn when they have reached the normal milestones of development given a secure and normal environment to learn in.

It posits that learning of content is possible when the information can be received, identified, stored, elaborated on, and evaluated.

Each of these stages helps to build on the next stage and assists in the cementing and cognitive processing of the new content.

One of the most important elements of the developmental theory of learning is the belief that learners will learn differently depending on the level of development that they have attained as a person.

ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING THEORY

Environmental learning theory is heavily dependant on the environment being provided for the learner to take part in.

The environmental theory is concerned with the modeling that occurs for the learner. This theory was developed under the primary beliefs and research of well-known theorist Albert Bandura. According to Bandura the importance of observing and modeling behaviors as a way of learning cannot be ignored.

He has stated in many of his works that people learn by watching the actions, successes and mistakes of others so that they have knowledge before moving into the learning phase of content.

He attributes a lot of the learning process to the observation and coding of behaviors and using those elements as a guide when approaching new learning.

The component processes underlying observational learning are (Social Learning Theory (a. Bandura) (http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html):

1) "Attention, including modeled events (distinctiveness, affective valence, complexity, prevalence, functional value) and observer characteristics (sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) (Social Learning Theory (a. Bandura) (http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html),"

2) "Retention, including symbolic coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal) (Social Learning Theory (a. Bandura) (http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html),"

3) "Motor Reproduction, including physical capabilities, self-observation of reproduction, accuracy of feedback (Social Learning Theory (a. Bandura) (http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html),"

4) "Motivation, including external, vicarious and self reinforcement (Social Learning Theory (a. Bandura) (http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html)."

The principles of his theory include several elements. He believed that people will be more inclined to adopt a behavior if the modeled behavior that they witness produces an outcome that they desire for themselves.

Individuals are also more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the outcomes of that behavior has a functional purpose or value that they can tangibly understand.

CROSSOVER

When elements of both theories are introduced to the equation the cross over theory occurs. Crossover is an action in which elements of different factors blend together for a final outcome. In the field of education a crossover of the environmental and developmental theory is not only a common occurrence but it is purposely sought out for the purpose of special education students. Blending their developmental ability with the provision of an encouraging environment works to help the student achieve his or her optimum levels of success in the classroom. It is what inclusion creates.

ALBERT BANDURA

Bandura believes that one models the behavior one sees. His most famous work was something called the bobo doll studies. In these studies he had young children witness adults punching an inflatable clown and yell sockaroo as she did so. She kicked it and sat on it as well. All the time she was being aggressive toward it she was shouting aggressive things (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html).

In this film she created she was consistently violent toward the bobo clown.

The children who watched it were then left with the bobo clown and began hitting and kicking it yelling sockaroo and other aggressive terms that they heard on the film.

This experiment may seem simplistic on the surface but it answered Bandura's questions and became the foundation for the environmental learning theory.

Bandura did a large number of variations on the study: The model was rewarded or punished in a variety of ways, the kids were rewarded for their imitations, the model was changed to be less attractive or less prestigious, and so on. Responding to criticism that bobo dolls were supposed to be hit, he even did a film of the young woman beating up a live clown. When the children went into the other room, what should they find there but -- the live clown! They proceeded to punch him, kick him, hit him with little hammers, and so on (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html)."

Through this process Bandura was able to develop the basic principles of environmental learning which include:

Attention: The expected learners have to be paying attention. Anything that interferes with that including tiredness, hunger or stress puts a damper on the ability to pay attention (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html)."

Retention: One must be able to retain what they have learned. Imagery and other techniques can assist in this happening (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html)."

Reproduction. One must be able to reproduce the learned material in some manner (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html)."

Motivation. There are many thing that learners are motivated by including past motivation, promises of reinforcement or incentives or vicarious reinforcements, seeing that in the model incentives were provided (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html)."

THE AUTHOR'S THEORY and TEACHING PRACTICES

While the author incorporates many different elements into the teaching style he will use within the classroom the most important influence on that practice is… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

?
Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 7-page paper:  $28.88

or

2.  Buy + remove from all search engines
(Google, Yahoo, Bing) for 30 days:  $38.88

or

3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)

or

4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Personal Learning Theory Term Paper


Application of Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory in Humanistic and Radical Adult Education Term Paper


Cognitive Social Learning Theory Research Paper


Learning Theory Researchers Term Paper


Learning Theories Research Proposal


View 176 other related papers  >>

Cite This Term Paper:

APA Format

Learning Theories With a Focus on Albert.  (2006, October 22).  Retrieved May 24, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/learning-theories-focus-albert/862529

MLA Format

"Learning Theories With a Focus on Albert."  22 October 2006.  Web.  24 May 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/learning-theories-focus-albert/862529>.

Chicago Format

"Learning Theories With a Focus on Albert."  Essaytown.com.  October 22, 2006.  Accessed May 24, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/learning-theories-focus-albert/862529.