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The Link Between Music and Learning"Literature Review" Chapter

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¶ … music play in learning. On the whole, the literature gives the indication that music does, in fact, play a vital role in learning, and particularly, for children from early childhood. The literature also takes into consideration the influence of integrating music as well as movement into teaching strategies of students with special needs. The literature review will be categorized into different thematic aspects of the impact of music, from an educational and learning perspective. This will include different aspects such as literacy, language skills, physical education, numeracy and mathematical abilities, and also children with learning disabilities. In overall, this paper will show how integrating music into education and learning can make a significant difference.

Introduction

Contemporary advances in the research study of the human brain has made it possible to increase the level of understanding of the manner in which actively engaging in music impacts other developments. Despite the fact that the understanding of how the brain functions is still at its initial phases, a number of the key processes that are involved in learning have already been ascertained. Actively engaging in music in an extensive way, prompts cortical re-structuring, bringing about practical modifications in the manner in which the brain processes out information. If this takes place during early childhood development, the changes may turn out to be hard-wired, and bring about perpetual modifications in the manner information is processed (Pantev et al., 2003). Music has an impact on individuals, both young and old, in different aspects with respect to learning. This particular paper will take into consideration the different thematic aspects in which music influences learning from early childhood phases and into the classroom setting. This consists of different aspects such as literacy, language skills, physical education, numeracy and mathematical abilities, and also children with learning disabilities (AMEP, 2002).

Discussion of Key Terms

1. Segmental and Suprasegmental Pronunciation

Pronunciation denotes the creation of sounds that one employs to make sense and denotation. It takes account of paying attention to the specific sounds of a language, which are at times referred to as segments. It also encompasses aspects of speech past the extent of the individual sound, for example, pitch, wording, stress and timing. Suprasegmental pronunciation encompasses the rhythm of how the words are articulated. On the other hand, segmental pronunciation encompasses the specific sounds, which are articulated by a person. A comprehensive explanation of pronunciation takes account of both suprasegmental and segmental features. Even though these dissimilar aspects of pronunciation are treated in separation, it is imperative to take note that they all work in combination when one speaks, and are for that reason, commonly learned properly as an essential part of spoken language.

2. Perceptive, Language and Literacy Skills

Speech and music have a few common or mutual systems of processing in the brain. Musical familiarities, which improve processing, can as a result influence the discernment of language, which in sequence, influences learning to read. Active engagement in music improves the brain's premature programming of verbal sounds. Speech employs structural auditory patterns in an extensive manner, on the basis of resonance dissimilarities between phonemes. Training in music largely grows and cultivates skills, which improve perception of these patterns. This is imperative in mounting phonological consciousness, which in sequence, adds to learning to read efficaciously.

Review of the Literature Organized by Themes

The literature review will be categorized into different thematic aspects of the impact of music, from an educational and learning perspective. In overall, this paper will show how integrating music into education and learning can make a significant difference.

Perceptive and Language Skills

For a long time, arguments have been made that music provides experiences that are effective for children to cultivate and advance listening their skills in conventional schools, and also for those experiencing difficulties in learning. Research studies undertaken presently have a capacity to provide justifications as to why this might take place (Sze and Yu, 2004). In listening to speech and music, one processes a great deal of information very fast, devoid of consciousness. The easiness, in which, one is able to undertake this, relies on previous language and musical experiences. This familiarity is inherent, knowledgeable through exposure to certain settings, and is functional habitually every time one listens to music or speech. Musical experiences, which improve dispensation, can as a result influence the insight of language, which in turn, influences reading (Sze and Yu, 2004).

According to Alinte (2013), songs help students in not only learning, but also increasing their motivational levels. Research shows that songs have a constructive impact on the classroom setting. In addition, research indicates that employing songs as a method of teaching can be a fun activity. It also helps in stimulating active participation, and assisting students to establish and make application of formerly or recently acquired language knowledge. The key finding from Alinte (2013) does not support the prevalent observation concerning the legitimacy of songs as a suggested learning and schooling approach.

In accordance to Alinte (2013), music and language ought to be studied together. The results of the study indicated that there were great benefits of engaging in musical activities within the classroom, and also that songs were a constructive addition to the teaching space. Music ought not to be a replacement to all other approaches. Nonetheless, it ought to be deemed a significant teaching approach that can offer several advantages to students. Taking up songs as a frequent approach ought to be taken into consideration as it enhances the grammatical exactitude of the students, and also how they use the language. In this manner, the students are able to augment their competencies in listening as well as in speaking (Alinte, 2013). In general, this shows the benefits of music for improving language skills of children and students.

Moradi and Shahrokhi (2014) sought out to ascertain whether or not learning English by way of music can improve the capacity of students in pronouncing segmentally and suprasegmentally. Outcomes from the research study demonstrated that music had a positive and constructive impact on articulation and pronunciation, as well as recognition of stress patterns. The study indicated that music can enable students to learn and understand suprasegmentals in a better way. The inference from this research study indicates that music ought to be incorporated in the process of teaching.

In general, the evidence gives the suggestion that children engaging in music play a vital and key role in the development of perceptual dispensation structures, which enable and simplify the encoding and identifying patterns of speech, and sounds. Being exposed actively to music at an earlier stage or phase in life, and an extensive duration of involvement, ensures that the impact is greater and more effective. Transference of these skills is done automatically, and helps in the development of not just language, but also literacy.

Numeracy

Generally, there has been a prolonged assumption that there is a strong association between music and mathematics. Research studies on music therapy as well as music, indicate that music and math are associated in the brain at a very early stage in life. Musical components, for example, balanced beat, cadence, tune, and tempo, have in possession intrinsic mathematical codes, such as spatial properties, sequencing, calculating, modeling and one-to-one communication (Geist et al., 2012). According to Geist et al. (2012), children have the prospective and potential to have more engagement when paying attention to steady beats, in comparison to listening to simply voiced instructions. The author asserts that listening to a balanced and stable pattern in the course of mathematical schooling activities in the early childhood tutorial, is plausible and could stimulate better responsiveness, in addition to improved engagement in young children (Geist et al., 2012).

In accordance to Geist et al. (2012), music appears to be linked to the very primitive and primordial parts of the human brain. This means that even the youngest kids have the capacity to innately react to music and the mathematical concepts it contains. It is plausible that paying attention to a balanced beat pattern in the course of mathematics teaching activities in the early infancy schoolroom could stimulate better responsiveness and improved engagement in young children. day-to-day learning experiences, for instance listening to music, are predominantly substantial in supporting increasing mathematics conceptions in children, from early stages to five years old. Music is made up of cadenced patterns and can be structured to make the modeling simple or complex, contingent on the activity. Research proposes that infants and babies have an inborn ability to not only perceive patterns, but also make them out in music. Underlining these competences by teaching patterns through music at an initial stage might profit children's cognitive capabilities (Geist et al., 2012).

Research study undertaken by Charles (2010) showed that students have a preference for music as well as movement being included in classes for math and reading. This diminished their disparaging behaviors and also enhanced their post-test marks in math as well as reading. Charles (2010) indicates that this can be… [END OF PREVIEW]

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