Essay: Magnetic Resonance System on Patients

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[. . .] The physical effects are classified by Hurlbert (2000) as below:

Paraparesis: A slight degree of paralysis affecting the lower extremities

Paraplegia: Complete paralysis of both lower extremities and usually the lower trunk. The upper extremities are not involved.

Quadriparesis: Partial paralysis of all four limbs (arms, legs)

Quadriplegia (or Tetraplegia): Complete paralysis of all four limbs

Paresis: Partial paralysis

Paralysis: Partial or complete loss of motor function

Paresthesias: Abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling.

Bearing similarities in the conditions experienced in the brain and spine injury patients, the response given tend to be similar. The care is both psychological and physical. They are meant assist the patients regain the use of their psychological and physical capabilities.

Response strategies/management of brain injury patients

The patient can undergo externally induced stepping movements applied, especially the paraplegia patients. This can bring about rhythmic locomotion like response.

Patients can also undergo upper extremity reconstructive surgery which involves utilization of unaffected but nonessential muscle to provide a lost function in another part of the body.

Functional neuromuscular stimulation can also be used as a response strategy. This involves electrical stimulation of intact peripheral nerves which can bring about contraction in muscles paralyzed by upper motor neuron injury. Stimulation can be achieved by implanted electrodes. Such stimulation can be useful for exercise and for function.

Psychological adjustment is influenced by how patients are treated during the rehabilitation stage. First response may be made with the individual soon after a spinal chord injury or in the early days of hospitalization. Working with patients at this early stage ought to initially be slow, restricted to building a relationship and gathering information. It is critical to provide as much reassurance and respect as is important.

Krause and Rohe, (1998) recommend the following as ways of managing psychological depression that may result from injury of the brain or the spine;

Recognize the symptoms and organize a prompt referral to an experienced mental health clinician, such as a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist to determine the severity of the symptoms. Persistent symptoms may require more specialized treatment and a revised diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Depression.

Let patients know that these are commonly experienced after a traumatic and life threatening event, and a normal re action to such a stressful situation.

Encourage the person to talk about what they are experiencing with family and friends. Discussion may help reduce any negative appraisals of his/her reaction during the experience.

Zejdlik (1992) suggests that "social support will be critical for helping the individual cope after a trauma has occurred. It may be necessary to identify potential sources of support and facilitate support from others like partners, family, friends, work colleagues, peer support."

Brain and spine injury patients show identical conditions physically and psychologically so care should be accorded to them to assist them cope with life. It is paramount to note that anyone can be a victim of brain or spinal injury hence inalienable assistance as discussed above should be accorded.

References

Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New

York. McGraw-Hill.

Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.

Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.

Hollicks C., Radnitz C., et al.(2001). Does Spinal cord injury affect personality? A Study of monozygotic twins. Rehabilitation Psychology 46(1): 58-67.

Krause J., & Rohe D (1998). Personality and Life Adjustment after Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory

Study. Rehabilitation Psychology, 43(2): 118-130.

Hurlbert RJ. (2000). Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: An inappropriate standard of care. J Neurosurg, 93 (Suppl 1): 1-7.

Zejdlik C. (1992). Enhancing feelings of self-worth: Management of spinal cord injury. Boston: Jones

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