Term Paper: Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Malaria in Sub-Sahara Africa

It is beyond any shadow of doubt that malaria is the world's most lethal bloodsucking infection. DDT is a customary choice in the Sub-Sahara African Countries to control Malaria. These countries have given notifications that they are preserving the privilege to utilize DDT against malaria. The effect of the successful ban on the use of DDT could have in-depth repercussions for numerous developing countries in the Sub-Sahara Africa since DDT has been an extremely cost effective measure to control the spread of malaria.

The paper reviews the first program to control the spread of malaria in Sub-Saharan African Countries that started in the 1920s with larval restrain. It had not been until DDT substituted parathyroid that the program for malaria control caused the fundamental and long-standing decrease of malaria occurrences. For numerous purposes, the developed world has been making efforts to terminate DDT for all the programs of malaria control in the Sub-Saharan African Countries. Even though DDT is presently utilized by several Sub-Saharan African Countries in malaria program to control malaria, the UNEP Governing Council is pushing for the prohibition of DDT and eleven additional "Persistent Organic Pollutants" (POP's).

This study will demonstrate that malaria entails exceedingly important economic expenditures on Sub-Saharan African countries. The utilization of DDT in Sub-Saharan Africa reduced the region influenced by malaria back to one fifth of its initial magnitude. At the same time the majority of the developed countries no longer require the utilization of DDT and can meet the expenses of the plentiful substitute insecticides, a number of developing countries (particularly in the Sub-Saharan Africa) depend on DDT to battle against malaria and to prevent malaria-related deaths.

Chapter 1

Background of the Study

It is common knowledge that malaria is the world's most lethal bloodsucking infection. Malaria takes life from more people than any other infectious virus, apart from tuberculosis (TB). Despite the fact that the geological region influenced by malaria has reduced drastically in size in the preceding five decades, restraining Malaria has turned out to be extremely difficult, in fact impossible, and the efforts and improvements by the respective governments have been wasted.

The infection is passed on by Anopheline mosquitoes, the figure and kind of which establish the degree of flow in a specified region. Augmented threat of the infection is related with transformations in the utilization of land concerning actions like highway construction, mining, logging, as well as, farming and irrigation ventures, predominantly in border regions like the Sub-Sahara Africa. One of the cures for this ailment that has been extremely useful is the utilization of DDT.

However, because of its drastic side affects, DDT has been banned from almost every developed country and most of the developing countries. Nevertheless, the practice of utilizing DDT continues to be prevalent in almost the whole of the Sub-Sahara Africa. The reasons cited by the governments of this region has been that no authentic proof is available to show that DDT is actually harmful, that powerful lobbies in the west have been influencing the western governments to ban DDT for their own gains.

Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the reasons that have triggered the developed world; to ban the use of DDT; to influence third world countries to also take the initiative to ban the use of DDT. All preceding attempts on this issue have been either supportive or obstructive towards the use of DDT, indicating that they may have been influenced and backed by powerful lobbies having their vested interests in this issue. Therefore, it is imperative that an independent research is conducted to determine the reason for supporting or opposing the use of DDT taking into account the views of both sides, as well as, the steps that have been taken to enforce or resist the international laws. Further research needs to be conducted so that alternate and cheaper means to cure Malaria can be discovered.

Statement of the Problem

The current policy adopted by the governments of the Sub-Saharan African countries has been inadequate to contain the spread of this disease. Furthermore, the medical funds have been quite inadequate; the drugs that are being utilized to cure malaria are about a dozen or so, furthermore, almost all the drugs being utilized contain considerable malaria resistance symptoms.

The governments in Sub-Sahara Africa have encouraged policies that target the destruction of the mosquitoes that cause this disease, since, reliable means to contain this disease are out of their reach. These policies have paved way for excessive utilization of man-made insect-killers, mainly dichlorodiphenyl trichioroethane (DDT). This man-made insect-killer is said to possess extreme side affects to both the environment and the human life.

Majority of the countries have stopped manufacturing and using DDT, however, DDT has been generally discovered in the milk of nurturing mothers since it does not decompose quickly. Furthermore, in 2001, during the Stockholm meeting, DDT was labeled as one of the "filthy dozen" compounds on the "Persistent Organic Pollutants" (POP) treaty. The participants to the "POP's Treaty" fundamentally accepted to outlaw all operations of DDT apart from a final alternative against malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Nevertheless, DDT is still a customary choice in the Sub-Sahara African Countries to control the spread of malaria. They have given notifications that they are preserving the privilege to utilize DDT against malaria. To the casual observer, such exercise may appear inevitable, but there are excellent arguments for thinking that advancement against malaria is attuned with decline in DDT utilization.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the steps taken to ban the DDT use along with the reasons that have prompted the ban on the use of DDT by the developed world, as well as, the reasons behind the reluctance of the Sub-Sahara African countries to impose the ban in their respective countries. The effect of the successful ban could have in-depth repercussions for numerous developing countries in the Sub-Sahara Africa since DDT has been an extremely cost effective measure to control the spread of malaria.

Significance of the Study

This study will demonstrate that malaria entails exceedingly important economic expenditures on Sub-Saharan African countries. The utilization of DDT in Sub-Saharan Africa reduced the region influenced by malaria back to one fifth of its initial magnitude. This gave huge monetary space to these African countries to make huge strides to develop their lands for agriculture so that economic growth of their people can take place.

Simultaneously, DDT was being utilized globally (predominantly in numerous developed nations in the west) for several beneficial operations, to vast outcomes and economic rewards. However, DDT turned out to be the center of attention of an intensive condemnation from numerous ecologist factions; nevertheless a lot of the declarations made by these factions are groundless and unsubstantiated.

At the same time the majority of the developed countries no longer require the utilization of DDT and can meet the expenses of the plentiful substitute insecticides, a number of developing countries (particularly in the Sub-Saharan Africa) depend on DDT to battle against malaria and to prevent malaria-related deaths. DDT is not a universal remedy and there are ecological and health factors that ought to be taken into consideration.

Nevertheless, the ban on the use of DDT will not only enforce considerable financial expenditures on developing countries in the Sub-Sahara Africa, but also several of the ecological and health concerns on which the ban is founded are not suitable to the under developed countries in Sub-Sahara Africa. Therefore, it is important to gauge the impact of the ban on the use of DDT on the Sub-Saharan African countries.

Research Questions(s)

Will the ban on the use of DDT to control the spread of malaria have negative influences on the health and economy of the Sub-Saharan African Countries?

Will the ban on the use of DDT to control the spread of malaria have positive influences on the health and economy of the Sub-Saharan African Countries?

Does the ban on the use of DDT to control the spread of malaria stand on logical grounds?

Does the ban on the use of DDT to control the spread of malaria stand on illogical and baseless grounds?

Summary

CHAPTER 2

Review of the Literature

Introduction

Malaria Incidence in Sub-Sahara Africa

Nineteenth century European conquerors and explorers of the Countries belonging to the Sub-Sahara Africa quickly acknowledged the menace and severe effect that malaria could comprise. Modest information is accessible on the occurrence of malaria at this point in time, on the other hand, particular examinations into the ailment in the beginning of the twentieth century has revealed the destructive outcome that the ailment had on the financial system of countries in the region of the Sub-Sahara Africa (Mark, 2002).

In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria is currently noticed in nearly the entire continent of Africa. The reality that the ailment is so prevalent in these areas has been because of the eradication of the use of DDT to control the spread of malaria, which started almost… [END OF PREVIEW]

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https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/malaria-sub-saharan-africa/92327.