Term Paper: Man Has Lived

Pages: 5 (1331 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Literature - African  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] In alliance with Canadian, Chinese, and Malaysian investors, the government has been able to start production in July 1999 and plans to send the oil to a new refinery in Khartoum. SPLM opposes this, claiming that the proceeds will be used to finance an intensification of the war. The movement has declared the oil installations a military target and several recent operations have been aimed at hindering the production to divest the government of the potential income from this source.

The war has led to poor utilization of the resources as well as to large expenditure (estimated at U.S.$1-2 millions per day) resulting in persistent deficits in Sudan's balance of payments. Deficits have been covered by loans and a debt of U.S.$20 billion has been accumulated, making Sudan one of the most indebted countries in the world. Failure to meet the debt service obligations has brought Sudan very close to being suspended from IMF.

Social Implications

Living conditions for people in the war zone are awful, but they are not much better for the displaced and the refugees who have only little access to land and therefore difficulty in securing their own food.

Relief food aid is being channeled in through Operation Lifeline Sudan (previously with Danish support through Danchurchaid), World Food Program and others but the government does not allow these to operate in the SPLM controlled areas.

Furthermore, it is well-known that the armies on both sides have taken more than their share of the relief aid. Bahr el Ghazal has faced severe malnourishment in 1998 and 1999 due to a combination of these factors and it is essential to safe that relief aid can reach all areas unhindered to prevent further human suffering.

Several international NGOs are operating in Southern Sudan but the government restrictions makes it very hard for them to implement their programs and very few besides the churches manage to do more than delivering relief food.

In the areas that have been under SPLM, control for some time, the churches and NGO's run a number of agricultural and educational programs. The Danish organization ADRA is involved in this.

Hardly any public service or community activity is in operation. It is predicted that 90% of the people left in Southern Sudan have no access to health care, and the educational system has distorted completely "leaving an entire generation illiterate."

SPLM has since 1994 worked to introduce local authorities and administration in the areas controlled by them, and despite very limited means many communities based initiatives including self-help schools are now in operation.

The Human Rights Situation

Many reports from international human rights groups as well as from the Special Reporter appointed by United Nations demonstrate that Sudan has one of the worst human rights records in the world. Detentions, persecution and other restrictions on political, ethnic and religious minorities are the order of the day.

Several reports have recognized slavery and slave trade. Children are forced into Koran schools and other islamization programs. Reports from the Nuba Mountains in the southern part of the northern region document ethnic cleansing programs by the government army in revenge for the local people's support to SPLA/M, and similar carnage are reported from the western region of Darfur.

The UN Special Reporter on Human Rights in Sudan has been deprived of access to certain areas and the regime has delivered unreliable information and withheld information at their own judgment.

Human Rights organizations have faced similar complexity but have, nevertheless, managed to compile damaging evidence of the regime's insolence of all internationally accepted human rights.

Despite this, Sudan managed to secure that a UN resolution against its demeanor in the Human Rights Commission in April 1999 was less reproachful than has been the case before.


Garang de Mabior, Poul John, Kegan "Call for Democracy in Sudan International," London, 1991.

Deng Francis M. "War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan." Brookings Institution, Washington, 1995.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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