Management and Leadership Emergencies Research Paper

Pages: 16 (4963 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Education: Social Issues

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] By using social cognitive theory as a basis, they identified risk factors for psychological injury to allow for future improvements in alleviating influences related with emergency high-rise evacuation. "Other variables associated with increased risk of psychological disorder outcome included gender (female), lower levels of education, preexisting physical disability, preexisting psychological disorder, greater distance to final exit, and more information sources during egress" (Sherman et al., 2016, p. 1). High-rise evacuations are rare, but can occur especially during fires. Emergency preparedness, especially for certain at-risk populations can prevent unnecessary trauma resultant from such emergencies.

The article notes the need for improvement in these areas to minimize challenges. "Improving the "emergency preparedness safety climate" of high-rise business occupancies and reducing the number of egress challenges are potential strategies for reducing the risk of adverse psychological outcomes of high-rise evacuations" (Sherman et al., 2016, p. 1). Leaders in emergency management must use such theories to identify and apply strategies to reduce potential problems for those affected by emergency situations.

The Extended Parallel Process Model is a theoretical framework that tries to predict how people will react when facing fear inducing stimuli. Developed by Kim Witte, researchers use it to understand the motivations of people. In a recent article, the model was used to understand the emergency response willingness of public health workers. Those using the model provided participants with a modified curriculum that could help them tackle emergency situations. "the curriculum focused on modifying perceptions of self-efficacy, response efficacy, and threat related to specific hazards in the all hazards spectrum among participants" (Von Gottberg, Krumm, Porzsolt, & Kilian, 2016, p. 1).

The results demonstrated the use of the model enabled the combination of various management levels as well as disciplines. The modified curriculum also improved self-efficacy. "participants reported despite challenges in administration, the curriculum was well designed and appropriate for combining multiple management levels and disciplines. The qualitative findings support quantitative findings of the curriculum's benefit in improving self-efficacy and willingness to respond among participants" (Von Gottberg, Krumm, Porzsolt, & Kilian, 2016, p. 1). Such a model can be used to identify willingness of emergency response workers as well as promote self-efficacy to those trained with the model incorporated into the curriculum.

This model also promotes the incorporation of multiple management levels leading to increased potential for effectiveness in emergency management. Researchers must dedicate

More effort into establishing theoretical frameworks for training purposes to allow for better emergency management. These theories demonstrated how they can be used to understand, create and implement sound strategy for emergency situations. Furthermore, they allow for a varied perspective in the ways in which emergency situations can be tackled, despite perceived challenges or obstacles.

The final article deals with leadership styles that emergency management staff may adopt during a crisis. Close loop communication is mentioned extensively and serves as the basis of communication for crisis resource management which incorporates certain leadership styles for proper execution of processes. "development of Crisis Resource Management (CRM), systematic educational program designed to improve team performance based on knowledge from the aviation context to ensure the quality of teamwork . . . a standardized scheme of communication has become a core component of CRM" leaders (Hargestam, Lindkvist, Jacobsson, Brulin, & Hultin, 2016, p. e009912). Two leadership styles were seen within Crisis Resource Management (CRM), egalitarian and authoritarian.

Experience in trauma courses, ethnicity, and CLC both team and leader were variables in which leadership style was most effective. CLC was a component in the shift of leadership styles with short answers and directive belonging to the authoritative style and long, open-ended answers to the egalitarian. Researchers founds CLC allowed for assessment of variables and improved overall communication between team and leader. The article suggests that although CLC is not a natural component to communication, it should be implemented.

CLC may not come naturally to the professionals in the trauma team. The reasons for this might include time pressure and workload, as well as hierarchical and interpersonal factors. Establishing a routine helps to normalize the practice of closed-loop communication during emergencies, as does role modelling by team leaders (Hargestam, Lindkvist, Jacobsson, Brulin, & Hultin, 2016, p. e009920).

In conclusion, this literature review highlighted several working theories for emergency management. It also provided recognition of distinct leadership styles. Communication in the form of CLC was found to be most conducive to emergency management. A theoretical framework also helped establish comprehension of the processes in emergency management.

Selected Situation

Management and Leadership (M&L) exists plays a vital role in emergency management. The various roles managers hold along with steps towards development and implementation of change, structure, and the selection process all have to do with M&L. Without these important aspects of emergency management, little would be done in case of an emergency. Briefly covered in the previous section, assessment can be a critical factor for emergency management.

M&L is the section of emergency management where most assessment is performed. Literature that provides a framework to enable assessment can lead to effective evaluation of several things like critical success factors, areas of weakness, and potential improvements.

One article shares a potentially new method for identifying critical success factors. "In this method, the evaluations of influencing factors in the form of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs) are converted into basic probability assignments (BPAs). Then Dempster -- Shafer theory is adopted to combine group decision" (Li, Hu, Zhang, Deng, & Mahadevan, 2014, p. 504). Although this method is complex, involving computation, it shows how theory and analysis can lead to improved practice, especially concerning assessment. In a situation like flooding, critical success factors can be identified beforehand and then applied at the time of the crisis.

Researchers in the article stated that once the critical success factors were identified, they were optimized to improve efficacy, promoting success in emergency management. "By optimizing the five CSFs, the effectiveness and efficiency of the whole emergency management could be greatly promoted" (Li, Hu, Zhang, Deng, & Mahadevan, 2014, p. 504). So, if the role of M&L is examined through the perspective of evaluators, they are a key step in improving the overall process of emergency management.

Networks were also briefly mentioned in the previous section. Networks offer resources for emergency management. It can come in the form of general needs or specific needs. A 2013 study examined emergency management networks and their impact on emergency management. They go into detail about the increasing need for involvement of close interactions among a wide assortment of parties across fields. These fields can include emergency management, law enforcement, and public health along with sectors like the government; and levels of government.

Results revealed the importance of having a two-tiered network to better handle crises. "Analysis of data reveals a contrast between a core set of consistent (mostly governmental) actors and a peripheral set of rapidly turning over (mostly non-governmental) actors -- though the account depends on the mode of data on which one focuses" (Robinson, Eller, Gall, & Gerber, 2013, p. 344). Management and leadership promotes cohesion and fluidity among multiple groups and sectors. Without M&L there would lack of communication and confusion concerning tasks and responsibilities.

The role of M&L then become crucial for successful implementation of emergency management because they take on the role of mediator. They enable the continuation of communication through multiple streams. They also provide the kind of stability needed for emergency situations. Emergency situations can change depending on the nature of the disaster. For instance, a flood could cause water damage and loss of property and life. These are different factors that need to be analyzed and communicated accordingly. If it is not communicated properly, snags and higher losses can be incurred.

Finally, when looking at M&L regarding roles, they play a part in the interpersonal aspect of emergency management. There are several roles regarding interpersonal behavior within organizations. For example, there is the the leader, the figurehead, and the liason, to name some. These are some of the roles published in Mintzberg on Management Inside our Strange World of Organizations by Mintzberg in 1990 that fit into the category of interpersonal. The interpersonal category proves ideas and information, allowing coworkers to understand and communicate with each other (Mintzberg, 2007).

The figurehead is the one with the social, legal, and ceremonial responsibilities. They are typically expected to be a source of inspiration. People within the organization look up to them and admire their authority. They are an important part to creating motivation and respect in an emergency management situation (Mintzberg, 2007).

The next role is the leader. They offer leadership to the team or organization. They manage the responsibilities and performance of each person within the team (Mintzberg, 2007). Without them, there is no one to be held accountable for the actions of subordinates. There is also no clear order that may lead to chaos especially in crises.

The third role is liaison. Managers are liaisons and should communicate with external and internal contacts.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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