Term Paper: Management Principles Management Leadership Model

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[. . .] There is a pre-assumption that the leader's traits existed before leadership and most of them failed to approach the study of personality. Several studies aiming at identifying some of the leadership traits reveal that most of the traits were unimportant compared to other traits (Dereli, 2007). In this context, some scholars have argued that the failure to outline leadership traits should account to the lack of measurement and comparison of data from the many studies conducted. Some of the recent studies utilized measurement procedures focusing on managers and leaders.

Behavioral Theories of Leadership

The lack of tracing important leadership traits urged scholars to explore the behaviors exhibited by specific leaders. Behavioral studies of leadership primarily aim at identifying behaviors that distinguish leaders from non-leaders. These theories support that a set of specific behaviors qualify as a style of leadership (Washington, 2007). In this context, leadership styles refer to a distinctive behavior adopted by individuals holding important positions of leadership and several studies including the Hawthorne studies, Lowa studies, Ohio state studies and University of Michigan studies conducted to identify the behaviors.

Recent Developments of leadership Theories

The recent developments will help in understanding leadership by avoiding all the complicated and sophisticated explanations concerning leadership behavior, and attempt to explore leadership from the perception of ordinary people.

Attribution Theory of Leadership

The theory suggests that individuals possess hidden leadership theories in their minds in respect to what constitutes a good leader. This means that the people create their model leader. Such a leader is favorable provided one appeals to the theories revolving in people's minds (Washington, 2007). This theory suggests that leadership is largely symbolic in the eye of the people. One of the interesting elements of the theory is that effective leaders have an association with consistency in the decision making phase.

Charismatic Leadership Theory

Charisma refers to "magical aura" possessed by only a few leaders. Research suggests that there are three basis of authority including traditions, rights, privileges, and charisma, which is synonymous with heroism and an exceptional character of an individual. Owing to their character, strength and proficiency, super human qualities are attributed to a leader who saves his staff or followers from a crisis or a calamity and becomes an idol (Hater and Bass, 1988). The charismatic leader attaches significance to their vision speech, and ability to take risks. In addition, they attach utmost significance to their subordinate's emotions. Such leaders have significant effects on their followers including undying trust from their followers, finds acceptance from their followers, attracts affection, obedience from their followers, admiration for the leader, emotional inclusion in the organization's mission, and congruence between the leader's team and the group's culture.

Contingency Theories of Leadership

The contingency perception of leadership emerged from the systems theory and its effects on organizational and administrative theory. The approach suggests that a particular leader behavior will relate to team job results and fulfillment. In order to achieve this, specific variables will work with each other such as the leader, the position they hold, team members, internal and external settings of the organization (Washington, 2007). A successful match between the leader and the team's performance and satisfaction is the aspect referred to as 'contingent.' Three situational variables arbitrate between the leadership mode and efficiency, which are leader-employee relations, task design, and level of authority.

Leader Participation Model

The leader participation model is central to five approaches of decision-making, which range from highly autocratic to allow for consultations. The efficiency of an approach relies on several contingent elements, which can be summed up as information inadequacy, structure of the problem, and subordinate attitudes and relationship with the leader (Washington, 2007). The model constitutes of complex decision-making tree involving seven contingencies whose relevance can be evaluated by answering "Yes" or "No" questions and five other alternative leadership styles.

The model was revised by expanding the contingency variables to twelve, ten that are answered along a five-point scale. In addition, the model suggests that leadership studies should aim at the situation not the leader. This is because it is sensible to talk about participative and autocratic situations than the leaders who have the attributes. This is because a leader's behavior changes depending on the situation and a leader can alter their leadership style to cater for different situations.

Management Theories

Managing is one of the most significant human operations. Back in history, human beings started establishing communal organizations to achieve aims and goals they could not achieve as individuals, managing from the past have shown importance to ensure the coordination of individual efforts. As the people continuously depended on team effort, and as many organized teams have happen to extensive, the role of managers has increasingly shown importance and the complexity. Henceforth, managerial theory has become vital in the manner managers manage complicated organizations (Olum, 2004). However, the different approaches of management evaluations have resulted in much confusion as to how to define management, management theory, and how to evaluate managerial events. In addition, contemporary theories of management tend to account for and assist in the explanation of the quickly changing of organizational setting.

Classical Organizational Theory School

This theory represents the work of Max Weber's bureaucratic theory and Henri Fayol's administrative theory. Weber suggested that western civilization was shifting from 'wertrational' thinking, affective action, and traditional action to 'Zweckational.' The scholar believed that civilization was changing to seek technically optimal outcomes at the expense of emotional or humanistic content (McGurk, n.d). Fayol's administrative theory focuses on personal duties of management at a much more granular standard. In other words, his piece of work is aligned at the management level. Fayol believed that management had five significant roles to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate, and to control. In addition, he developed fourteen principles the administration should go with along with the set management roles (Olum, 2004).

Recent Developments in Management Theory

The most recent theories include the systems approach, situational or contingency theory, chaos theory and team building theory. The system theory had essential impact on management science and understanding organizations. A system is a collection of part combined to achieve an overall objective. Removing a part of the system will lead to a change in the system. A system has inputs, activities and results. Into the bargain, the systems share results among each of the four elements of the system. The system theory has an effect on managers because it helps them to look at the organization in a broad manner (McGurk, n.d). In addition, the theory has assisted managers to interpret patterns and events happening in the workplace. For instance, the theory enables managers to identify the various parts of an organization, especially the interrelations of the parts.

The situational or contingency theory suggests that when managers make a decision, they must consider all elements of the present situation and act on those factors that are significant to the current situation. On the other hand, Tom Peters advocated the chaos theory. He suggested that the chaotic and random global events are what happen in an organization. A new theory referred to chaos theory, emerged to recognize that most of the chaotic events are rarely controlled. Some theorists suggest that systems naturally go to complexity, and as they do so, they become volatile and must require a lot of energy to maintain stability.

The trend continues to an extent where the system splits, combines with another complicated system or falls apart wholly. This will need an effective manager to avoid the stated scenarios from happening. The team building approach or theory is another management theory. The theory emphasizes quality circles, best practices, and continuous improvement (Olum, 2004). The theory primarily hinges on the reliance of teamwork. In addition, the theory also emphasizes flattening of management pyramid and decreasing the levels of hierarchy. Finally, it is all about consensus management such as including people at all levels in decision-making.

Other Management Theories

In this group, comprises the works of Edward W. Deming and Douglas McGregor. In this category, Edward Deming is the founder of modern quality management and regarded by the Japanese as the primary influence in their postwar economic miracle. He initiated some assumptions: 1) create constancy of intention for continued advancement of goods and service; 2) espouse the new beliefs established in Japan; 3) stop reliance on mass inspection; build quality along with cost; 4) improve regularly in every process including planning, production, and service; 5) advocate for latest methods of training on-the-job involving administration; 6) embrace and introduce leadership aimed at helping people to perform on their job; 7) elimination of fear, encourage effective two-way communication and 8) breakdown obstructions (Olum, 2004).

McGregor hypothesized management concepts as outlined in Theory X and Theory Y He used the human behavior research and noted that the way an organization runs relies on the culture of its managers. Theory X provides a negative perception of human behavior and management that he considered having dominated the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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