Application Essay: Management and Theory Leadership

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[. . .] initial success. But that would leave out other variables like geography, econometrics, type of product or service, technology, timeliness, etc. Strictly speaking, this is one of the difficulties in social science research. The internal validity must show that A caused B; while there still might be a trade-off between internal and external validity in certain situations. In general, looking at research into entrepreneurial activity we find that numerous threats exist: interaction of selection bias and treatment (issue may work only on a certain population); there may be reactive experimental arrangements that influence generalizations (e.g. actions between global consumers with different goals and belief systems), (Alvesson and Karreman; Locke).

Research is a step-by-step process that uses a systematic approach to the collection and analysis, and then interpretation, of data. Using a systematic approach allows a template for all science to communicate between disciplines with the faith that a certain methodology has been used. Researchers in divergent fields, too, can then use data in their own research, and be confident. Finally, using a systematic approach keeps as much research bias out of the study and provides a way for peers to review the results objectively (Lockshin, 2007).

Quantitative research is data that can be measured through mathematical values. This method is used to gather data in a logical manner, and then work through steps in analysis and interpretation. Qualitative research uses more subjective, open-ended, data and looks at more the how, the why, and the interpretation of behaviors and data than solid, quantitative values. Neither method suits all forms of research or is more valuable or valid than the other. The validity and measure of the research is based on what is being tested and if the method fits that format. Indeed, there is a causal link between entrepreneurship education and qualitative research; the snapshot approach to qualitative data does not always fit. In the same way, large studies are expensive, particularly those of a longitudinal nature and must be balanced with the cost-benefit of the project (Van Maanen, et al.; Fitzgeral and Oliver).

Finally, much of the POB material may be positivist or interpretive. The positivist view, for instance, focuses on a deterministic paradigm that holds that direct causes determine effects or outcomes. Using the scientific method, then, we begin with a theory, and then collect data that supports or refutes that theory, then revises the theory and retests data. The interpretive approach seeks more to understand the meaning of individual issues (members, organizations, etc.) within the situation. It assumes that there is validity in subjective interpretation and are focused on how individuals understand and actualize events and settings (Whittington, 2011). This also contributes to the graphic representation of leadership theory as a way to express concepts for different types of learners. POC is an epistemological method or strategy -- a way that organizations can gain knowledge and improve retention. Much like the Six Sigma models of quality control, the use of POB to prevent the "shadow" and encourage creativity forms the basis of a usable theoretical maxim firmly rooted in ontology (Fitzgerald and Oliver).

REFERENCES

Alvesson, M., & Karreman, D. (2007). Constructing mystery: Empirical matters in theory development. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1265-1281.

Cortes, J. (2012). How Many Coaching Models Can You Find?, Retrieved from:

http://www.what-is-coaching.com/coaching-models.html

Drucker, P.F., et al. (2001), Harvard Business Review on Decision Making, Boston, MA:

Harvard Business School Press.

Edmondson, A., & McManus, S. (2007). Methodological fit in management field research. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1155-1179.

Fitzgerald, S. And Oliver, C. (2006) Walking the dark side of positive organizational behavior: Appreciating the role of the Shadow. Retrieved from:

http://southernmanagement.org/meetings/2006/proceedings/PaperID306.pdf

Locke, E.A. (2007). The case for inductive theory building. Journal of Management, 33(6): 867-890.

Lockshin, R. (2007). Evaluating population Measurements. In R. Lockshin, The Joy of Science (pp. 425-32). New York: Wiley.

McCaig, C., & Dahlberg, L. (Eds.). (2010). Practical Research and Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Scott, J. (2010). Quantitative methods and gender inequalities. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13(3): 223-26.

Van Maanen, J., Sarensen, J., & Mitchell, T. (2007). The interplay between theory and method. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1145-1154.

Whittington, R. (2011). The practice turn in organization research: Towards… [END OF PREVIEW]

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