Essay: Managing Homeland Security

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Criminal Justice - Homeland Security

MANAGING HOMELAND SECURITY

Explain the four phases of emergency planning (i.e. mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery) in detail. Practically speaking, which phases do you think most emergency managers spend time thinking about? Which phases should they spend the most time thinking about? How, if at all, has 9-11 changed where the emphases should lie?

Mitigation is the process of devising appropriate strategies and procedures to reduce the foreseeable impact of emergency situations and to limit their consequences as much as possible. Preparedness relates to establishing the capabilities of emergency managers to respond as efficiently and effectively as possible to emergency situations.

Response refers to the operational implementation of the processes and strategies comprised by the mitigation and preparedness stages, and recovery relates to the process of renormalizing property and life affecting directly by emergency situations. All four phases are tremendously important, but generally, mitigation is the most important phase of emergency planning because risk mitigation directly reduces the comparative circumstances necessitating the other three phases of emergency management.

The terrorist attacks of 9-11 could not have been reasonably foreseen by local emergency management authorities, although evidence that surfaced shortly thereafter established that various federal law enforcement agencies and executives within the Bush administration could indeed have mitigated the risk of such attacks significantly by heeding the specific warnings of several individuals and by better coordinating and sharing the information collection and analysis of intelligence that was available prior to those attacks. Especially, in New York City, the 9-11 attacks highlighted the need for improved emergency preparedness, particularly in relation to Fire Department communications and jurisdictional authority between the NYFD and the NYPD.

2. Explain in detail the process of risk analysis? In light of the readings and your own experience, how would you define risk? How would you weigh it? If you were the city manager or police chief in a small town with limited resources, how much effort would you put into risk analysis? Would you simply "eyeball" risk and give it your best guess, or would you be inclined to conduct an actual assessment? The targeting of risk analysis consists of four specific components: (1) external general, (2) external specific, (3) internal general, and (4) internal specific. External general risks consist of those that pertain to prevailing circumstances outside of the geographical area of emergency management responsibility that bear not direct relationship to that area. External specific risks consist of those that are geographically remote from the area of responsibility but directly related to that area. Internal general risks consist of those that arise within the geographic area or responsibility that are otherwise unrelated to that area. Internal specific risks are those originating within the area of responsibility and also directly related to that area.

Risk can be defined as the degree of likelihood of circumstances requiring emergency response and the magnitude of the harms anticipated to be associated with those harms. In principle, emergency management priority is determined by the following matrix or order: first, high likelihood/high magnitude risks; second, high likelihood/low magnitude risks; third, low likelihood/high magnitude risk; and fourth, low likelihood/low magnitude risks. To a certain extent, the middle two elements are interchangeable in many instances. "Eyeballing" is not an effective risk management technique; furthermore, the fewer the resources that are available, the more important planning is to ensure their appropriate allocation.

3. How important to a community or an agency is an emergency plan? If you were crafting or revising such a plan for your own agency or community, what components would you make sure were present in the plan and why?… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Managing Homeland Security.  (2009, February 13).  Retrieved November 13, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/managing-homeland-security/8913

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