Marketing Motivation the Concept of Motivation in"Literature Review" Chapter

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The concept of motivation in psychological theory and in marketing theory and consumer research, by extension has a long and dynamic history, from Ernst Dichter's (1964) interpretive, psychoanalytic studies of consumer motivation in the 1950s and 1960s, through the era of psychophysiology during the 1970s and 1980s, to the current focus on defining consumer needs segmentation and the focus on unmet needs. Viewing the current focus on needs through the lens of motivation theories may permit a common thread to be found in these seemingly disparate paradigms. Motivation has been described as an emotion or desire working on the will and causing it to act. In this respect, motivations supply the fuel for behavior. Motivation as a psychological construct has played many roles as paradigms have risen and fallen over the decades; however, the central concept that motivation is the result of unmet needs has remained unchanged throughout these theories and systems (Pincus, 2004).

The study of motivation which consists of the mixture of wants, needs, and drives within the individual, is seen as very important to the understanding of behavior. Understanding the differences in what motivates people is important for placing brands in different markets. Motives underlie brand loyalty, brand preference, brand image and the importance of luxury brands. Buying motives can be recognized in the appeals used in advertising. Several scholars have developed lists of consumption motives by analyzing advertising. Some motives may exist across cultures, but the degree of importance will vary (de Mooij, 2005).

The best way to motivate a person is to advance it from the angle of creating strong and sustained interest in the goal, which will serve to draw the person into a path of personal motivation that will lead to them truly wanting to attain the necessary objectives leading to the ultimate prize. To successfully motivate someone, you first have to understand that most successful motivation only happens if the person approaches this willingly and enthusiastically - you have to want to be motivated - it is almost impossible to motivate someone who does not want to be urged; all you can do is threaten them. If the person has the desire to be motivated, then a marketer can support them in discovering the steps by using a series of probing questions to help them clearly identify exactly what they want. If they don't know what they want, you can help them by providing information on the choices or opportunities that are available, which they might not know. Even though most people are motivated to some degree, the question of to motivate is not a simple one. The test lies in supporting them to take the motivation through a sequence of steps that leads them to take action, which then leads to the achievement of what they want. Once a person can see what needs to take place, and then the motivation is sometimes easier to move forward because it becomes possible to see a gleam of success, meaning some results can be attained from taking just a few steps (Richardson, 2010).

Motivation is what inspires all human behavior. The process of motivation is started by the pressure that an unsatisfied want generates. A person will do whatever they can to reduce this tension. The needs or motives that lie at the root of the motivation process are of a special type. Physiological needs contain the need for air, water, food, clothing, shelter and sex. Psychological or secondary needs on the other hand are comprised of the need for affection, status and security. Needs can positive, negative, utilitarian or hedonic, conscious or unconscious, and because of these goals are formulated. A person usually has many goals and these goals are never ending and a failure to satisfy them sometimes leads to aggravation. A person can deal with this by setting alternate or related goals or by building a defense system such as aggression, rationalization, regression and withdrawal (Consumer Behavior: Chapter 3, 2010).

A good starting point for surveying the psychological underpinnings of marketing is by considering some basic notions related to motivation. Indeed, the essence of marketing, as clarified by the well-known marketing concept, is firmly rooted within the context of motivational needs. The marketing concept presumes that the various aspirations and objectives of marketing practitioners are oriented to beneficial outcomes for all the stakeholders involved in a marketing exchange. Primarily, marketing is held to play a useful role in helping consumers satisfy their needs and thereby enables the smooth operation of the exchange relationship between consumers and organizations (Baker and Saren, 2010).

Many experts feel that marketing motivation drives everything. It is thought that it is both the desire to improve the status quo as well as fear of loss of the status quo that push people to act. Studies have shown that fear can have a short-term consequence on motivation in order to get someone to act positively. On the other hand, positive rewards have both increasing and longer lasting outcomes. From a marketing viewpoint, inspiration can drive some parts of a potential marketplace into action. Additionally, it can also educate a person to the vast number of alternatives that are available on the market. In addition to inspiring and educating the consumer as to the options available it can be the validation to attract the already motivated but undirected person to make a purchase now. As circumstances change in the world such as inflation, interest and seasons, or, as conditions change within a person, they may be stimulated to act. Marketers have little way of knowing this, unless they are running either inspirational or educational promotions, and, are examining the results. The best ads contain both of these elements in them (the Marketing of Motivation, 2001).

It is thought that emotion is a driving factor to business success. Undoubtedly, people in business have to be experienced and well-informed about products, processes, and programs. However just having knowledge is not enough to get big enhancements in the results. They must have emotional knowledge as well. A primary truth of human motivation is that people define themselves in terms of their emotions. And yet most marketing strategies and programs center on the rational market share, target identification and validation, and customer needs analysis and pay no attention to the emotional. By doing so, such strategies disregard enormous opportunities (Filson, n.d.).

The marketing view describes consumers as going through a five-step decision making process:

1. Problem recognition is where the consumer perceives that they have a want or need. The consumer evaluates his situation to some situation he would consider to be better, and his desire to move to the better situation is stimulated.

2. Information search is when a person seeks information about how this want might be fulfilled. They may explore their own experience, looking for ways that they have satisfied it in the past. Or they might check with outside sources of information, like friends, family, newspapers, advertising or packaging.

3. Evaluation of alternatives is where after gathering information; the consumer compares the variety of alternatives about which they have gathered information. Goods and services are thought to have qualities or characteristics that are of great interest to the consumer. The consumer will lean in the direction of the alternative that has the most attributes that meet their desires.

4. Purchase decision -- After having arrived at the intention to buy something, the consumer will follow through and make the purchase as long as nothing gets in the way.

5. Post purchase behavior -- happens when after the purchase when the consumer will decide whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied with the good or service. Consumption, in the marketing outlook, is seen as something of a trial-and-error process (Weisskopf, 2006).

It is very important for marketers to recognize the motives that influence the consumer as they begin and direct all human behavior as well as consumer behavior. Many psychologists like William McGuire and Henry Murray have tried in the past to make a list of human motives. "While McGuire used a four point model to explain marketers that a consumer is affected by a combination of needs and not a single need, Murray tried to list 27 motives and stated that people have a similar set of needs, but they prioritize them in a different way" (Consumer Behavior: Chapter 3, 2010).

Motivation theories also help marketers to understand how consumers' utilization is influenced by their needs. Abraham Maslow tried to position such significant needs into a hierarchy of five levels, dependent on the significance of the needs to a person. The five levels of needs according to him are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, egoistic or self-esteem needs and self-actualization needs. The trio of needs which is another theory of motivation deals with three kinds of needs. These three are the need for power, affiliation and achievement. These needs play an important role in pressuring consumer behavior. Motivational disagreement is an idea which deals with the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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