Arctic Security Threats and Canadian Government Essay

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¶ … National Security

The Canadian government's response to Arctic's security

The Canadian government is one of the powers that have exercised their sovereignty and security strength in matters of the Arctic. In the Canadian Arctic, the governance system has done enough to ensure its borders are well protected through a peaceful process of devolving territories from the ever evolving arctic region. The government of Canada has been effective in securing its place in the arctic region, and the federal government hardly diminishes sovereignty of Canada as a state when it transfers power to the major territories; Nunavut, the Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Descriptions of Security issues in the Arctic

One of the fundamental issues that faced the arctic region during the cold war was more of economic and political that social. Arctic is indeed one of the richest regions in terms of minerals such as gas, oil, nickel and many others. Extractions, mining processes and exploitation of energy have been practiced since the beginning of the cold war, with the state powers fighting to gain economically from the Arctic. Powers like Russia and the States fought for economic gain in the region, to strengthen their abilities during periods of war. Canada was involved as they tried to acquire their territories in the Arctic. Despite the potential of the arctic, there are many hindrances including accessibility to mining sites, and ever since the cold war period, states that were interested had to indulge the indigenous people for assistance. However, currently with the increased temperature rates, the icebergs continue to melt creating chances for infrastructure development hence better accessibility networks (Yalowitz, Collins & Virginia 12).

Immediately after the Cold War, concepts of security have transformed practically and theoretically. Unlike the time of the cold war, where security was based on aspects of military ability and state defense against opposition from other states, the nuclear weapon developments rapidly changed the nature of security in a tremendous way. Currently, though, diminishing of the military forces has been noted, and new developments have been realized based on human security concepts. The states that had an interest in the arctic now started to consider the security of citizens rather than that of the state. This led to the conceptualization of institutions and international norms such as agreements and treaties. Citizens whose rights and freedoms were infringed could access justice hence enjoying security. Also, in the 90's, at the peak of issues relating to degradation, academicians and policy makers used that as an indicator of security in the Arctic region. However, the whole issue of security revolved around international co-operation (Huebert 3).

Analysis of measures during and after the cold war

Most of the arctic nations, including Canada, invested in the development of bombers that were long-range submarines that were nuclear powered and missiles during the cold war. The weapons were tolerated both by NATO and USSR states. These weapons were the only transit point for the nations that were interested in the arctic. In case of war eruptions during this period, missiles and aircrafts could be common in the space within the polar region. All the nations within the region, including Canada involved themselves with military development systems and this called for substantial efforts from the states. During most of the duration of the cold war, international cooperation was not considered leading to security threats of both citizens and states that were involved in the cold war (Huebert 2).

As the cold war came to an end, the military terms of security were no longer influential. There was an evident reduction in the ability of military forces. However, the northern part still persisted in securing their states using military procedures, though with reduced implications. There was a high reduction rate… [END OF PREVIEW]

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