Mechanisms of Aging Research Paper

Pages: 3 (973 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Death and Dying  (general)

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .

Experiments have shown that Daf proteins affects fatility and movement of the flies at the same time shifting metabolism towards the breakdown of fats which is similar to mechanism played by insulin in humans.

Another similarity between the genes of worms and that of flies is that they both exhibit gene Sir2 which its activity increases under calorie restriction i.e. reduction of glucose in the cell. Calorie restriction leads to increased NAD+ which activates Sir2 necessary for extending life span.

Rodent cells have a replicative lifespans that is substantially shorter than that of human cells. Experiments done on mice cells have shown that their embryo fibroblasts cease their division after 5-10 PD in culture since mouse embryo fibroblasts are much more sensitive than human fibroblasts to the 20% oxygen in which the cells are cultured, but with reduction of the oxygen to about 3-5%, their replicative lifespan can double Nigam ( 623)

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Humans have been found to have a replicative lifespans that range from (10PD to 80PD). For fetal and neonatal, their cells proliferate at a rate of 50-80PD, whereas fibroblast from an adult donor has a replicative lifespan of lower that 40PD. But this replicative lifespan can vary from one donor to the other. In recent experiment on human cells senescence, the fibroblast extracted from various fetal and adult tissue show that they do not differ in any way with the deference in developmental stage, tissue use and the tissue itself Nigam ( 619)

. They all exhibited similar behavior with regard to genetic and environmental control of replicative lifespan. The replicative senescence of the human fibroblasts shows the following characteristics Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 43)

TOPIC: Research Paper on Mechanisms of Aging Mechanism of Assignment

With increase in PDs, the telomeres progressively shorten, their cells arrest growth with a G1 DNA content and senescent phenotype, also, their replicative lifespan are extended when there are manipulations that inactivate critical component of either pRB or p53 pathways, and inactivation of both the pRB and p53 pathways synergistically extend the replicative life span, but the population enters an unstable termed crisis from which rare immortal variants may arise Comfort ( 263)

In hydra, senescence has been found to be negligible; they are known to reduce damaging effect of free radicals through dilution and cell division. Research concerning hydra species, their lifespan is mostly affected by both environmental and genetic factors since they are able to live for many years. They only die or become immortal as a result of disease or trauma.

Other studies show that the worms, humans and flies have a similarity of all of them having the Extra-chromosomal circular DNA which segregate and replicate to the mother cell during cell division and this is what results to cellular senescence by competing for the necessary nuclear factors Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 86)

Works cited

Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.

Mackenzie, Danielle K.,… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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