Research Paper: Melatonin &amp the Pineal Gland

Pages: 10 (2598 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Anatomy  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Reports of Clinical 1, Clinical 2, or Clinical 3 randomized clinical trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohorts, case series, registry data as well as narrative and systematic reviews." (2004) Buscemi et al. (2004) states that the data "were extracted from all reports of studies that were included in the review using a standardized Data Extraction Form." (Buscemi, et al., 2004) Included in the report are specifics as follows:

(1) Details of study design and inclusion/exclusion criteria.

(2) Details of the population such as gender, age, ethnicity, and type of sleep disorder.

(3) The number of individuals that were eligible for, and enrolled in, the study.

(4) The number of comparison groups and participants allocated to each group.

(5) The number of participants who withdrew from the study.

(6) Details of the intervention such as the formulation, dosage, timing, frequency and duration of melatonin administration as well as the type and frequency of usage of concurrent medication.

(7) Results obtained for predetermined, question-specific outcomes. (Bucemi, et al., 2004)

Key observations noted in the literature review conducted by Buscemi et al. On the effectiveness of exogenous melatonin in normal sleepers are those stated as follows:

(1) Effectiveness of Exogenous Melatonin in Normal Sleepers- Normal Sleepers: Melatonin decreased sleep onset latency (SOL) in normal sleepers (weighted mean difference (WMD): -3.9 min; 95- percent CI: -5.3 min., -2.6 min.). The magnitude of this effect appears to be clinically insignificant. There was evidence of possible publication bias in the selection of studies that were analyzed; we found a greater number of studies reporting positive results compared to negative results.

(2) Melatonin increased sleep efficiency in normal sleepers (WMD: 2.3%; 95-percent CI: 0.7%, 3.9%), and this effect was dependent on the timing of sleep, such that the effect of melatonin was greater in daytime sleepers (daytime sleep: WMD: 8.0%; 95- percent CI: 1.0%, 15.0%; night-time sleep: WMD: 1.2%; 95-percent CI: 0%, 2.4%). The magnitude of this effect appears to be clinically insignificant. There was considerable evidence of possible publication bias in the selection of studies analyzed; we found a greater number of studies reporting positive results compared to negative results.

(3) Overall, melatonin did not have an effect on REM latency in normal sleepers, although doses of 1 mg to 3 mg produced a significant increase in REM latency compared to placebo (WMD: 12.7 min.; 95-percent CI: 6.8 min., 18.6 min.), while both higher and lower doses did not show this effect. (Buscemi, et al., 2004)

In regards to the effectiveness of exogenous melatonin in individuals with sleep disorder and specifically those with a primary sleep disorder it is stated as follow:

(1) Melatonin decreased sleep onset latency in people with a primary sleep disorder (WMD: -10.7 min.; 95-percent CI: -17.6 min., -3.7 min.). SOL was decreased greatly in people with delayed sleep phase syndrome (WMD: -38.8 min.; 95-percent CI: -50.3 min., -27.3 min.). The magnitude of this effect appears to be clinically significant. SOL was decreased marginally in patients with insomnia (WMD: -4.3min.; 95-percent CI: - 8.4 min., -0.1 min.). The magnitude of this effect appears to be clinically insignificant. SOL was reduced more in children (less than age 17 years) (WMD: -17.0 min., 95-percent CI: -33.5 min, -0.5 min.) than in adults (age 18-65 years) (WMD: -11.2; 95-percent CI: -27.7 min, 5.4 min.) or elderly patients (greater than age 65 years) (WMD: -7.8 min.; 95-percent CI: -17.4 min., 1.7 min.). The effects of melatonin did not vary with dose or duration of treatment. If the analysis is approached using the Fixed Effects Model, melatonin does not have any effect on sleep onset latency in people with primary insomnia.

(2) Melatonin did not have an effect on sleep efficiency in people with primary sleep disorders; the effects of melatonin did not vary by age, type of primary sleep disorder, dose, or duration of treatment.

(3) Melatonin did not have an effect on sleep quality, wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time, or percent time spent in REM sleep.

(4) Generally, these studies were of moderate-to-high quality. (Buscemi, et al., 2004)

People with a secondary sleep disorder are reported to experience effects including that melatonin "did not have an effect on sleep onset latency in people with a secondary sleep disorder; the effects of melatonin did not differ between children and adults; the effect of melatonin did not vary with dose or duration of treatment." (Buscemi, et al., 2004) IN addition, melatonin increased sleep efficiency in people with a secondary sleep disorder and the effect of melatonin's did not vary by age, dose or duration of treatment. " (Buscemi, et al., 2004)

In those suffering from sleep restriction the study reports that there was not an effect on sleep onset latency in those that suffer from sleep restriction as the effect of melatonin did not experience variation according to dose or sleep restriction disorder type. In addition there was no effect on sleep efficiency by melatonin among those with sleep restriction and no variation of melatonin by dose is noted. The study found that there was no effect on the quality of sleep by melatonin.

The primary mechanism that melatonin uses in the production of sleepiness in humans is not clear however, three primary reasons are cited including:

(1) the mechanism may involve a phase-shift of the endogenous circadian pacemaker,

(2) a reduction in core body temperature and/or

(3) a direct action on somnogenic structures of the brain. (Buscemi, et al., 2004)

Bercemi et al. concludes by stating that there is a need for more in the way of research studies in these areas of inquiry and specifically that there is a need for "the conditions of these studies to be clearly defined, especially with respect to the formulation and pharmacology of the melatonin product used in these studies. For studies involving melatonin administration to normal sleepers, the presence of substantial heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias necessitates more research in this area." (Buscemi, et al., 2004)

Summary and Conclusion

From the literature reviewed in this present study it is indicated that melatonin is not effective in the treatment of most sleep disorders with only short-term use. Additionally there is evidence which indicates a link between endogenous melatonin and the sleeping cycle as well as evidence indicated a link between endogenous and melatonin and the temperature rhythm

Bibliography

Arendt, Josephine (1998) Melatonin and the pineal gland: in-uence on mammalian seasonal and Bercemi, N. et al. (2004) Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Summary: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 108. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm

Borijgin, J. And Snyder SH (1999) The… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

?
Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 10-page paper:  $26.88

or

2.  Buy & remove for 30 days:  $38.47

or

3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)

or

4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Adrenal Gland Term Paper


Lightning and Human Circadian Clock Term Paper


Occupational Health and Safety With Lighting Term Paper


Wakefulness and Sleep Essay


Biology of the Mind: The Endocrine System Term Paper


View 12 other related papers  >>

Cite This Research Paper:

APA Format

Melatonin &amp the Pineal Gland.  (2012, May 11).  Retrieved April 24, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/melatonin-pineal-gland/5282123

MLA Format

"Melatonin &amp the Pineal Gland."  11 May 2012.  Web.  24 April 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/melatonin-pineal-gland/5282123>.

Chicago Format

"Melatonin &amp the Pineal Gland."  Essaytown.com.  May 11, 2012.  Accessed April 24, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/melatonin-pineal-gland/5282123.