Metaphysics Let Us First Start With Understanding Research Paper

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Metaphysics

Let us first start with understanding metaphysics. We can define metaphysics as the philosophical formulations of answers to questions like 'what is there'? In other words it can be a speculative analysis of reality and its nature. Science is a form of investigation of reality and metaphysics is further contemplation of what is known and established to finding that unknown from the evidence. (Cahn, 287)

Philosophers have tried to describe both the material world and the phenomena around it and the speculative existence of things that cannot be seen or perceived. Basically the answer sought knowledge about existence and human perceptions. In modern times the scientific discoveries and experiments have negated most of the earlier thoughts but have brought in new speculation. The earlier argument was that perception could differ based on the subjectivity of the perceiver -- as in Plato's cave, modern day physics have their quantum theory. In either case the reflections on the question is largely hypothetical. Thus it has to be acknowledged that there is always a reality above what we cannot know, an unknown element that we seek to rationalize by speculative philosophy. This is necessary to further knowledge into things.

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We shall now understand as to whether there is there any logical reason to believe in a reality we cannot see. Discoveries of relativity and atomic physics and the speculations of time, relativity and quantum physics are also not verifiable in the sense that we cannot 'see'. Evolution and the concepts of genetics were things that could not be seen. Thus the primary fact that "Matter itself, not just its shape and form, could be entirely converted into nothing but the energy of motion; space and time were made elastic, dependent on one's particular point-of-view." (Walker, 41) Among all metaphysical notions the most important are the 'object' and 'identity'. These are the focal point of metaphysical thinking. (Lowe, 28) Ultimately the individual experience determines the reality for that individual. (Cleeveley, 6)

Research Paper on Metaphysics Let Us First Start With Understanding Assignment

It was also argued by Saint Augustine that truth is not determined by the examination of corporeal things and therefore it is a mistake to assume that nothing exists because we cannot perceive it. The five senses of the body will not report all that can be perceived, and in a modern sense we may also add that modern gadgets that see or do the seeing for us may not also be error free. In such cases we have to temporarily believe what we have found and wait for some thing else to displace it. This can also be exemplified in the concept of Plato's cave. (Augustine, 391)

So why would anyone believe in such things? Entities in the scheme of things are seen in the abstract, and entities in the method encompass both objects and non-objects. Objects have existence in time and space, or in other words they have a determinable identity and the abstract entities relate more to philosophy rather than a concrete reality and in this scope come the abstract entities being in neither space nor time Why then must the abstract be considered? The answer is that such an entity ought to be considered if it were in any manner to provide us with an answer in the quest for knowledge of what is and what is explainable. To that extent such abstract entities like mathematical objects, can be believed in. These beings like sets, numbers and other models are necessary for analysis of the unknown. (Lowe, 210) Without using such instrument of pure reasoning the question of understanding real entities cannot be attempted. Therefore it is necessary to believe in such entities as rational. Such entitles are ontologically posterior to concrete entities. (Lowe, 248) the opinion of Plato was rightly opposed by Aristotle, who said that Plato has not explained universals and ideas being immobile in the Plato model, it was not acceptable. That is the four kinds of causes, for example is a part of the dispute. But the fact has also to be remembered that Aristotle did not himself contribute anything further to the consideration of things. (Suarez; Doyle, 32)

Now let's move on to discuss whether classical Greek metaphysics is an important precursor to modern views on religion. The classical Greek metaphysics is the foundation to the modern views on religion. There is no doubt that the later thinkers were largely influenced by the thinking in this matter of Aristotle because down to Burke and modern theorists, there is a mention of God -- as a purposeful creator. For example Burke's metaphysics follows the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition and Burke went in a different line of thought with the inclusion of existentialism. (Pappin III, 52)

The concept of teleology thus takes a new meaning. Now it can be ascertained that there is a goal or finite end for which things exist. This was "spoken of as final causation. Thus from this theory of causation- springs the concept of God -- who creates for a purpose and thus this universe is a purposeful creation and hence it exists. This was later emphasized by Burke for example his concept of the quality that things possess reflects is the objective order of reality. (Pappin III, 139)

Thus the religious ideas that modern thinkers hold come from the ancients, and it is exemplified by Burke - "The purpose of one's life or of a civilization is not simply what any person or collectivity determines it to be. It is in the order of things that all creation should by its very nature be created with a purpose." (Pappin III, 139)

Plato's views on the immortality of the soul, relates to the existence of a primary being from which the soul related. This concept was later taken up by Aristotle's contemplation on being and truth and this being leads to the existence of a schema of beings which can be beings of truth and falsity. Thus Aristotle speaks of the ousia the prime being the categorical being. It is from this primary that all other beings derive much in relation and in convergence to Plato's prime mover. Thus there is an equation of actual and the form. Thus there is a never ending combination of false and true, beings and essence. (Halper, 227)

Thus there are identified three schemas of beings that have come into deliberate existence for the ousia and there also is considered a fourth being that could exist and come into existence by accident. This being is discarded by the Greeks in their model and Aristotle has left it to others to seek the causes of such accidental creations. Even the accidental creation is claimed to be the result of the will of ousia. Thus the beings must in terms of relation be related to one another and the central ousia. (Halper, 227) These are also for the basis of influencing the later theorists on the universality of beings -- and their root in a single entity.

Rene Descartes begins by denying everything, and there is nothing taken for granted. In his treatise -- meditations he was trying to upset the assumptions with which the thinking progressed. What if the basic assumptions were disbelieved? Because it was argued by him that most belief were not rooted in ideally reality conditions or were not examined without bias of assumptions. (Cleeveley, 7) His first argument was that our senses deceive us. Therefore we cannot believe in the input from them. The second problem with the thought is that the idea of a concept or entity is that the presumptions always have rules under which they could be framed. For example science has its experimental rules. Thus induction as in mathematics and deduction as in logic were also flawed. (Cleeveley, 12)

This leaves out the questions of entity and forms, which… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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