Dissertation: Metaphysics Versus Psychology

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METAPHYSICS vs. PSYCHOLOGY

Metaphysics and Psychology have historically been at odds with one another in what is an unnatural although real separation from a somewhat new science and its mother science. Although many believe that psychology and METAPHYSICS are actually joined together the view of many in these two areas of study are adamant that the two are opposed to one another. Indeed it is just this debate which will be examined during the course of this study reported herein.

Metaphysics is the mother science of psychology and was first established as such in ancient times by such as Aristotle, Plato and others. Metaphysics is of the nature that conducts an examination of reality and the relationship that exists between the physical world and other realms including those of mind and matter. This work in writing will examine the various views of both metaphysics and psychology and the compatible factors that exist between these two as well as that which is not compatible.

This work examines the definition of both Metaphysics and Psychology and the similarities and differences that exist between the two. It is important to examine the differences between metaphysics and psychology in order to understand how each of these two sciences are constructed and why these two sciences are held by many to be in opposition to one another although the opposition of the two is in reality unnatural.

In addition, this work will examine the divisions within the realm of psychology the derivations of each of these divisions and their use in scientific explanation. As it will be shown in this work the divisions of psychology are derived from Greek and specifically the division known as ontology which addresses the philosophical view of the spirit or the individual's being and their existence or that which inherently comprises the individual which is unable to be seen or touched but which is evidently present and which exists.

The important questions addressed by the ontologist are those related to questions concerning the origin of the being of the individual as well as of the universe and all life within the universe. Another branch of psychology which will be examined is that of Cosmology which is related to questions concerning the very nature of nature itself and which is also derived from the Greek language relating to the order that exists inherently in the world and the universe. This aspect of psychology addresses the relationship that exists between the plants the earth and the stars.

Indeed, Cosmology addresses the universal laws including those of gravity and other such topics inclusive of power and motion, time, space, disintegration and preservation. (the Methodist Review, 1895) Philosophies serve a very special place in the lives of mankind and just as well psychology is also held in high regard and yet neither of these can be held as faultless in their explanations of how the universe should be correctly and optimally arranged, ordered, or even explained. This is because within each of these areas of science that so much is yet unlearned and therefore little understood by human researchers and scientists.

The three divisions of psychology which will be indentified and reviewed in this study can be described as much like the snake that consumes its own tail and round in a circle travel the study of phenomena, logic, and ontology in the attempt to explain that which is yet unexplainable and which knowledge remains elusive in the area of scientific study and understanding based upon the present measures and instruments of measure known to contemporary mankind and indeed from all appearances this has always been the case in the attempt to understand precisely where metaphysics and psychology both the twain small meet in sciences grasp for knowledge.

This study intends to show that a great degree of separation between psychology and metaphysics results in failure to commit to theoretical consistency due to the inconsistencies that are contained in the study of psychology. The assumptions of psychology will also be examined in this study including the assumption that things are and minds are and that within limitations by the supposed nature of both of these then necessarily act in a causal manner affecting each other. The warning was sounded from the entity known as mainstream science which included Newton against metaphysics or the 'old psychology'. (Ladd, 2007)

II. Objective of the Study

The objective of the research in this work is to examine metaphysics vs. psychology from the metaphysical viewpoint. Rather than attempting to examine metaphysics from the view of psychology this study intends to examine the two sciences or compare them and specifically viewing them in opposition from the metaphysical point-of-view.

III. Purpose of the Study

As just previously stated, the purpose of this study is to examine psychology vs. metaphysics from the metaphysical viewpoint. This view is rarely taken in research as it is traditionally accepted that psychology is somehow superior to metaphysics and that metaphysics lacks the power to properly classify and explain the aspects of logical, phenomenal, and ontological views held by psychology in explaining human being and existence for scientific purposes.

IV. Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is the information and knowledge that will be added to the already existing knowledge base in this area of study. It is held by the writer of this work that the specific method of research specific to the metaphysics view of the opposition that exists between metaphysics itself and psychology in terms of scientific research and understanding.

V. Research Questions

The research questions in this study include the questions as follows:

(1) How does metaphysics view psychology?

(2) What are the inherent differences between metaphysics and psychology?

(3) Is it possible to combine Metaphysics and Psychology into one area of inquiry?

VI. Definitions of Terms

1. Metaphysics -- Includes the following definitions: .Philosophy: (1) the branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, substance and attribute, fact and value; (2) the theoretical or first principles of a particular discipline: the metaphysics of law; (3) a priori speculation upon questions held as unanswerable to scientific observation, analysis or experiment; and (4) Excessively subtle or recondite reasoning.

2. Psychology - Psychology is defined as a "systematic study of the many ways that human beings are factually involved with each other and their worlds" (James, 1895, p.1)

VII. Methodology

The methodology of this study is one of a qualitative nature and one that entails an extensive review of literature in this area of study including material located in books, journals and other professional and academic peer-reviewed publications.

VIII. Organization of the Remainder of the Study

This chapter or Chapter One of this study has introduced the study and what the objectives and purpose of this study are as well as the research questions to be addressed. As well, this chapter has reviewed the significance of this study and its findings as well as the methodology that will be utilized in the research study.

Chapter Two will be comprised of an extensive review of literature in this area of study while Chapter Three will detail the methodology and specific research design in this study. Chapter four will present the study findings and results while Chapter five will discuss the study and Chapter Six will be comprised of the study Summary and Conclusions.

METAPHYSICS vs. PSYCHOLOGY

Chapter Two -- Literature Review

I. Literature Review

The work entitled: "Psychology vs. Metaphysics" published in the Methodist Review states that there has been "an estrangement" between metaphysics and psychology "under the name of the new psychology" carries "an obtrusive and saucy independence toward the mother science. This is unbecoming and unnatural for a real separation is impossible." (Methodist Review, 1895, p.223) the realm of psychology and metaphysics are opposed to one another rather than joined however, it is stated that in "such a construction the two sciences would be arrayed in unnatural war, like a child entering suit to overthrow its mother." (Methodist Review, 1895, p.223) There are stated to be within the realm of psychology at least when applied in the broader sense, three departments including:

(1) Phenomena of mind or scientific psychology;

(2) Laws of mind, called nomology, which belongs to the province of logic; and (3) ontology, or being, inferential and general, in which lies the philosophy of spirit. (Methodist Review, 1895, p.223)

The work ontology is derived from the Greek word 'ontolos' stated to be a participle of the Greek verb 'eimi' meaning 'being' or 'existence' and dealing with the nature of ones' being or existence. (MCSM Study Center, nd, paraphrased) According to some philosophers "we do not know our actual being, but we simply see or perceive its appearance." (Ibid) the source of being is stated to be a "subject for philosophical ontology. The origin or our being, the universe and the life in it are all important questions to the ontologist." (Ibid)

Cosmology is stated to be the component of metaphysics that… [END OF PREVIEW]

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